U.N. Security Council today [WORD ILLEGIBLE] voted to impose a [WORD ILLEGIBLE] mandatory arms embargo in South Africa, declaring that [WORD ILLEGIBLE] acquisition of weapons by [WORD ILLEGIBLE] "constitutes a threat to [WORD ILLEGIBLE] maintenance of international peace and security."
We have today witnesses an [WORD ILLEGIBLE] occasion," Secretary General [WORD ILLEGIBLE] Waldheim declared immediately [WORD ILLEGIBLE] the vote. "The adoption of [WORD ILLEGIBLE] resolution marks the first time the 32-year history of our organizations" that sanctions have been [WORD ILLEGIBLE] against a member nation.
South Africa immediately [WORD ILLEGIBLE] the decision as a "supreme [WORD ILLEGIBLE] of hypocrisy" and termed it [WORD ILLEGIBLE] to violence."
[WORD ILLEGIBLE] is also ludicrous for the Security Council to pronounce on the [WORD ILLEGIBLE] of expression in South Africa [WORD ILLEGIBLE] in more than half of its [WORD ILLEGIBLE] the concept hardly exists and in [WORD ILLEGIBLE] cases is non-existent," an [WORD ILLEGIBLE] South African statement said.
[WORD ILLEGIBLE] as the Security Council voted, [WORD ILLEGIBLE] General Assembly adopted a [WORD ILLEGIBLE] eight resolutions [WORDS ILLEGIBLE] Africa's "continued illegal [WORDS ILLEGIBLE] of Namibia," and demanded [WORD ILLEGIBLE] South Africa immediately [WORD ILLEGIBLE] from the former German [WORD ILLEGIBLE] known as Southwest Africa [WORD ILLEGIBLE] has administered since World War II.
United States and Britain [WORD ILLEGIBLE] along with several other Western nations, have been deeply [WORD ILLEGIBLE] in negotiations with South Africa aimed at obtaining early [WORD ILLEGIBLE] for Namibia - abstained in [WORD ILLEGIBLE]
[WORD ILLEGIBLE] ended arms embargo [WORD ILLEGIBLE] the Security Council today [WORD ILLEGIBLE] tougher than the [WORD ILLEGIBLE] renewable ban on arms originally proposed by President [WORD ILLEGIBLE] following South Africa's Oct. [WORD ILLEGIBLE] crackdown on a number of black [WORD ILLEGIBLE] and organizations.
[WORD ILLEGIBLE] mandatory aspect of the resolution [WORD ILLEGIBLE] that any U.N. member that [WORD ILLEGIBLE] it can be suspended or [WORD ILLEGIBLE] from the organization. The [WORD ILLEGIBLE] can be lifted only by another [WORD ILLEGIBLE] the Security Council and it is [WORD ILLEGIBLE] certain that the Soviet Union [WORD ILLEGIBLE] veto any such attempt that was [WORD ILLEGIBLE] accompanied by substantial [WORD ILLEGIBLE] in South Africa's racial [WORD ILLEGIBLE]
[WORD ILLEGIBLE] action, however, fell far [WORD ILLEGIBLE] of the more sweeping economic [WORD ILLEGIBLE] military sanctions sought by [WORD ILLEGIBLE] African nations, which the United States, Britain and France [WORD ILLEGIBLE] vetoed earlier in the week.
Nevertheless, African nations [WORD ILLEGIBLE] welcomed the mandatory arms embargo as a first step in bringing pressure on South Africa to change its white-supremacist policies.
Patrice H. Houngavou of Benin, one of the three African members of the security council, termed the arms ban "a milestone in the process of the struggle and the determined campaign against apatheid."
U.S. Ambassador Andrew Young, credited by many delegates with playing a major role in working out a compromise acceptable both to hardline African delegations as well as the former Western colonial powers, also hailed the resolution as an important first step.
"We have just sent a very clear message to the government of South Africa that the measures which were announced on Oct. 19 have created a new situation in South Africa's relationship with the rest of the world, he declared.
Young emphasized, however, that the imposition of sanctions was not intended to be simply a punitive measure.
"We must stress the other side of the picture and make clear to the government of South Africa our desire for reconciliation provided South Africa is willing to begin progress toward the end of apartheid and full participation for all South Africans in the political and economic life of their country," he said.
The resolution adopted by the Security Council today had these elements:
It calls on all countries to immediately cease providing South Africa with "arms and related material of all types," including the sale or transfer of weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary police equipment and spare parts.
It calls on all countries to cease granting licenses to Pretoria for the production in South Africa on foreign designed military equipment.
It calls on all countries to review existing licensing arrangements with South Africa "with aview to terminating them."
It calls on all countries to refrain from any cooperation with South Africa in the manufacture and development of nuclear weapons."
The provision on licensing arrangements - such as the pact under which South Africa currently produces French-designed Mirage jet warplanes - and the ban on cooperation with Pretoria in the development of nuclear weapons were inserted into the resolution as a cosmetic concession to black African countries, and are not expected to have any immediate effect.
The nuclear provision, for example, applies only to the development of weapons and does not require an end to peaceful nuclear cooperation. The United States has already stated its intention to continue with peaceful nuclear cooperation with South Africa in an effort to persuade Pretoria to sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and to open its nuclear facilities to international inspection.
France and Israel are two of the major foreign arms suppliers to South Africa. France's U.N. Ambassador Jacques Leprette said tonight that his country "already has decided on a mandatory arms embargo" and would take "all necessary steps" to make sure that it is enforced.
The Israel igovernment tonight said that it would study the resolution and its implications and "will draw its conclusions like any other country."
In Pretoria, Defense Minister P. W. Botha declared that "efforts to weaken South Africa through the application of mandatory embargoes shall not succeed." He added that South Africa was fully self-sufficient to produce and maintain arms required against terrorism, including small to heavy calibre weapons, vehicles, communications equipment and aircraft.
Even African delegates at the United Nations appeared to recognize that their call for a halt to licensing arrangements was not likely to have and immediate impact on South Africa's military capability.
The Africans are not hoodwinked," declared Beni's Houngavou. "It is to be regretted that the arms embargo against South Africa has been decided now, when the South African racists have succeeded in becoming almost militarily self-sufficient."
Ambassador Young, while conceding that arms bans always have loopholes, insisted that it would make south Africa's situation much more difficult.
"Loopholes are expensive," Young told reporters. "You buy things on the black market, and it cost more than it does in normal trade relations. If you have to build up your own spare parts industry, you've got to take money away from somewhere else."
Young also said he felt that the United States, which earlier this week recalled a naval and commercial attache from its embassy in South Africa to demonstrate its unhappiness with Pretoria's repressive measures, should not take any further unilateral steps at the present time.
"I think we ought to sit tight and see what happens," Young said.
African delegates continued to express unhappiness today ever the Western vetoes earlier in the week of their three resolutions calling for sweeping sanctions against South Africa, including a ban on foreign investment and trade.
Libyan Ambassador Rashid Kikhia, the Security Council president for November, expressed the hope that the United Nations would soon more on "to realize more positive steps and especially extend the sanctions to other fields."
The next major push for economic sanctions, however, appeared unlikely to come before May. 1, when Waldheim will report back to the Security Council on the impact of the arms embargo.
In wrapping up the council debate on sanctions today, Indian Ambassador Bikhi Jaipal paid personal tribute to the "dedicated and energetic efforts" of Andrew Young in "his vigorous pursuit of all available peaceful means to bring the system of apartheid to a quick end."
Young, for his part, indicated that he had no particular illusions that the arms embargo would bring change to South Africa overnight.
But it's not something that can be easily ignored," he said. "It's got to be considered. And that's all we want - for people to consider what their continued relationships with the West are going to be."
Young said too that he had no problems with his role this past week in vetoing black African calls for economic sanctions while pressing ahead with the arms embargo.
"It demonstrated that we will not be bulldozed into accepting anything and everything," he said. "But it also demonstrated that we are willing to act responsibly against the kind of violations that occurred in South Africa."