Andrei Sakharov, the principal dissident still speaking out publicly here, was barred by the Soviet secret police today from delivering an amnesty appeal to a meeting of the prestigious Soviet Academy of Sciences, to which he belongs.

In a telephone call to Western reporters Sakharov said that when he stook up in his place near the rear of the huge Place of Congresses during the academy session, he was "surrounded by a solid wall of KGB men who were in the hall and (I) was kept there until the hall emptied."

Sakharov, winner of the 1975 Nobel Peace Prize for his human rights advocacy, was seeking to put academy leaders to petty criminals Nov. 5 by the Kremlin to mark the 60th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. He had asked that the amnesty be extended to include "prisoners of conscience" as well. Western sources estimated that about 10,000 of the Soviet Union's estimated 1 million prisoners may be political detainees.

Today's was the latest in a series of incidents involving Sakharov in recent weeks. His apartment in suburban Moscow was recently ransacked by unknown vandals, some of his visitors have been followed by the secret police and several have been beaten, and members of his family have been harassed. Last week, a stepson, Alexei Semyenov, 21 was told he had been expelled from an institute where he was a mathematics student, allegedly for breaching "academic discipline." Sakharov has said he believes the dismissal was retaliation against his own human rights activities.

Sakharov said the appeal he hoped to direct to academy president Anatoly Alexandrov, declared:

"I and many of my friends ae convinced that an amnesty of all political prisoners, an easing of their conditions of confinement, a shortening of their terms and abolition of forced labor, as well as an abolition of capital punishment and the adoption of measures for the full realization of all humanities in the country, which in the past have experienced monstrous terror and the sufferings of its people, would have a great internal and international significance.

"What is the official point of view of the Communist party? What is your personal point of view?

"The extremely limited character of the recent amnesty disappointed many people in the Soviet Union and overseas."

The appeal called for immediate release of hundreds of prisoners and specifically named 18.

Sakhrov, a member of the academy for 24 years, still enjoys special academy privileges, such as a larger than average apartment and the use of a chauffeured car, but these touches only accentuate the isolution in which he now lives.

More than a dozen fellow dissidents have been imprisoned awaiting formal charges and more than 20 others have been premanently exiled from the country. Although the movement is still alive, the Kremlin seems intent upon throtting any dissent. Three prominent dissidents - Yuri Orlov, Alexander Ginsberg, and Anatoly Scharansky - reportedly face trials. The charge to be lodged formally against Scharansky may be treason, a capital crime, dissidents have said.