Amnesty International, the human rights monitoring group that was awarded in the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize, asserted yesterday that two thirds of U.N. member states are violating human rights they have pledged to uphold.
In a 52-page annual report, the London-based volunteer group also charged that the use of government-sanctioned torture of political prisoners is widespread.
The report catalogued degradation of human values in all corners of the world. It showed no substantial advances for the year in which President Carter had made human rights a cornerstone of his foreign policy.
"All major regimes, all political and ideological blocs are involved in violations)," the report said, citing inquiries into posible human rights violations in 116 countries, including the United States.
Although its focus was narrow and as language dispassionate and legalistic, the Amnesty report painted a grim picture of deliberate and random violence inflicted on political opponents of various governments.
Certain countries have freed a substantial number of political prisoners in 1977, the report said. "But these are outweighed by deteriorating situations in other parts of the world."
Moreover, Amnesty Chairman Thomas Hammarberg of Sweden said in the preface, "this survey is far from complete, even taking into account the fact that Amnesty International's work in the field of human rights relates only to prisoners."
In purely numerical tersm. Asis seemed to have a particularly large number of large-scale violations. Indonesia, for example, is said to hold between 50,000 and 100,000 political prisoners, some of whom had been in detention for 12 years.
The report acknowledged lack of information about the situation in China, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, but it noted the frequent use of the death penalty in China and reports of mass executions in Cambodia and Laos.
Its section on Africa repeated the widely publicized accounts of arbitrary arrests and other violations in southern Africa and Uganda, but it also recalled the continued imprionment of some well known African figures. These include former Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella, held for the past 12 years, former President Hamani Diori of Niger, held in detention since 1947; and former Mali President Mobido Keito, who had been imprisoned since 1968 until he died under mysterious circumstances last May.
The African section also details numerous assassinations and mass arrests of various political figures following military coups. One person in Sierra Leone, for example, was beaten and raped by seven supporters of the new government before she was placed in jail.
The Latin American survey contains perhaps the most gruesome examples of mass abductions, torture and killings by the security forces of various military regimes. Evidence cited for Chile, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Parguay pictures them as countries of unbridled governmental brutality.
Argentina, in the course of 1977, also seems to have experienced an upsurge in the scope of human rights violations by governmental and vigilante groups.
In the Soviet bloc, the report have a detailed account of arbitrary arrests and closed trails that showed that the number of human rights violations in Czechoslovakia in 1977 has increased in comparison to previous years.
Romania seemed equally harsh in dealing with non-conformists. The report also cited allegations of mass arrests by Romanian authorities of ethnic Hungarians and ethnic Germans and said that non-conformists are often falsely charged on pretexts of embezzlement, homosexually or systematic refusal to work.
The report said that Soviet citizens who exercise "their rights of conscience" in ways disapproved by the authorities are liable to criminal prosecution and that the misuse of pyschiatry to detain some dissidents is continuing. It said, however, that repressive measures short of imprisonment were so far the most frequently used by the Soviet authorities.
The Amnesty report said that all cases being investigated by the group in the United States involved blacks and American Indians. It said it was difficult to identify "prisoners of conscience" in a country "where there is no overt political imprisonment but where it is suspected that many people may be framed on criminal charges because of their political activities or ethnic origin."