The Carter administration yesterday agreed to allow 5,000 additional Soviet refugees, most of them Jews, to enter the United States.

The "parole" announced by Attorney General Griffin B. Bell will alleviate a backlog of Soviet refugees at processing centers in Rome.

The action is the latest in a series of such paroles and is indicative of a larger problem of how to cope with increasing numbers of Soviet and Indochinese refugees, administration officials said yesterday.

The periodic "parole" are necessary because the immigration laws put ceilings on the number of refugees permitted to enter the United States each year.

Earlier this year, parole for 4,000 Soviet refugees was approved. In August, 15,000 Indochinese refugees were allowed to enter.

"There has been some criticism in Congress that the administration has expedited parole requests for Soviet Jews while failing to act promptly on a backlog of refugees from Communist-dominated areas of Indochina.

Shepard Lowman, of the State Department'd office of refugee affairs, said yesterday that 1,500 Indochinese refugees a month have been fleeing by boat from Vietnam and other Communist countries.

In addition, 95,000 more refugees has also been increasing Lowman said. "They are both long-term problems and the flows can continue to be expected for some time."

Legislation to cope with the matter is expected to be proposed by the next session of Congress.

Lowman declined to say whether the Carter administration's human rights pronouncements have encouraged the out flow of political refugees from countries such as the Soviet Union.