Egyptian newspapers kept up their citicism of Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin yesterday but denied his accusation that the attacks were anti-Jewish.

Efforts to bring the two sides back together for peace talks continued as Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and U.S. Ambassador Hermann Eilts met in Cairo and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Alfred Atherton conferred in Jerusalem with Ephraim Evron, director general of Israel's Foreign Ministry.

Israeli officials were watching the Cairo press, which closely reflect the Egyptian government's viewpoint, to see whether its criticism is softening enough to permit resumption of peace talks.

Begin said Monday that the talks could resume if the Egyptian press halted what he described as an anti-Jewish campaign.

The mass-circulation Cairo daily Al Akhbar said Begin's accusation was without foundation while the English-language Egyptian Gazette said Egypt's press "neither suffers fools gladly nor will it put up for long with the base and deceitful methods used by the Israeli leadership."

The Egyptian Gazette said criticism of Begin's handling of the peace talks had been strongly worded but never anti-Jewish. It had been touched off by Begin's "unnecessarily tough statements" on maintaining Jewish settlements, such as Yamit, in the Sinai, the paper said.

If Begin could not understand Egypt's position, the paper suggested, it might be best if he resigned and joined "the straight-from-Miami settlers in Yamit or some other awful, ramshackle Israeli settlement to bawl his head off contentedly."

Al Ahram, a semiofficial Cairo daily, published a cartoon showing an Egyptian bending over a barbed wire fence in the Sinai and saying to Begin: "We are not anti-Semetic.We are anti-you."

There was no indication of the outcome of the talks between Sadat and Eilts or those between Atherton and Evron. Israeli officials dismissed Israeli radio reports from Washington that Atherton had significantly reduced the gap that existed between Egypt and Israel at the time of the Egyptian walkout last week.

While Sadat is continuing to rely on the United States to work out a basic peace formula acceptable to both Egypt and Israel, Egyptians feel, according to diplomatic sources in Cairo, that at the Jerusalem talks the U.S. efforts fell far short of what President Carter advocated on the issues of a Palestinian homeland and Jewish settlements in the Sinai.

In other Middle East developments:

Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud met with leaders in Kuwait in what officials there said was the opening of an Arab campaign to reconcile Syria and Egypt.

An Egyptian convicted of being a Libyan agent and planting a bomb at an Alexandria, Egypt, hotel that killed two persons last spring was hanged in Alexandria.

At least 10 persons were reported killed as rightist Christian forces and Palestinian guerrillas fought near Blat, a village north of Marjayoun in southern Lebanon.