Palestinian guerrillas claimed responsibility yesterday for the first rocket attack on Jerusalem since 1976, and said it was timed to coincide with this week's 30th anniversary of Israeli independence.

Israeli authorities here said one woman was injured in the explosion of a single Soviet-made Katyusha rocket. The Palestine Liberation Organization in Beirut said several persons were killed or injured in a "heavy rocket attack" and Israeli government buildings were damaged.

Independence Day celebrations traditionally have been occasions for Abrab terrorism, and Israeli police and civilians were on alert.

Israeli authoirties said the woman was cut by flying glass when the rocket exploded in the courtyard of an apartment house Saturday night, smashing windows and pocking the stone walls of the building.

"We heard the whistle, then this tremendous crash in our courtyard," said Yehudit Danilov, the injured woman.

A spokesman for the PLO claimed un underground squad launched "the heavy rocket attack on governemnt buildings in Jerusalem Saturday (which) commemorated the 30th anniversary of the Isaraeli occupation of our Palestine."

Fearing more rockets might be fired, Israeli soldiers combed hills and villages around Jerusalem for the launcher of the rocket, one of the heaviest weapons in the Arab guerrilla arsenal. The last explosion od a Katyusha in Jerusalem was in April 1976, although rocket attacks are frequent along the Israeli-Lebanese border.

In the Israeli-occupied West Bank of the Jordan River, Israeli authorities announced the release of Raymonda Tawil, a 51-year-old Palestinian journalist and unofficial spokesman for West bank Arabs.

She had been held for 45 days without trial on suspicion of contact with Palestinian guerrillas and for disturbing public order. She was arrested during a wave of West Bank unrest following Israel's March 15 invasion of southern Lebanon.

Tawil said Israeli authorities "tried to put psychological pressure" on her, but she mentiones no specific mistreatment.

Meanwhile, Syria's official press yesterday rejected an early reconciliation with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and revived attacks on Sadat's initiative with Israel.

Editorials in state-controlles newspapers rejected a mediation mission by Sudanese President Jaafar Nimeri, who left early in the day folowing two days of talks.

Al Baath, the official newspaper of the ruling Baath Socialist Party, called Nimeri's mission "an invitation to capitulation," and repeated on earlier

Sadat cut diplomatic ties with Syria and four other Arab states following hardline critisism of his peace initiative.