Turkish Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, reacting sharply to a U.S. Senate committee's rejection of President Carter's plan to lift the arms embargo against his country, warned yesterday that "we are obliged to show the world - and we will do it - that Turkey cannot be put under pressure by an arms embargo or through any other means."

The Turkish leader, who is winding up a three-day visit here, argued that continuation of the three-year-old, congressionally imposed arms embargo will only contribute to what he called Greek delaying tactics in negotiating an end to the bitter dispute between the two NATO members over the island of Cyprus.

He also argued, in effect that no Turkish political leader could survive at home if he is perceived as yielding major concessions on the Cyprus dispute under outside pressure.

"It has been seen clearly," he said in a statement issued here last night, "that as long as there is an arms embargo on Turkey, and there is an impression that this will create an effect of crushing pressure on Turkey, there is not going to be a solution to the Cyprus problem."

"Turkish-Greek misunderstandings will continue because the Greeks and the Greek-Cypriots will go on delaying the process," he said.

Ecevit's statement came after he received word here yesterday that the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, by an eight-to-four vote Thursday, had rejected lifting the embargo. The Carter administration has argued that the ban has not proved productive in forcing Turkish concessions on Cyprus or moving negotiations ahead. The administration also says it has caused serious military damage to the southern flank of NATO, where the Turkish forces provide the largest ground armies. Turkey has also shut down U.S. bases used for monitoring Soviet activities.

There had been hopes after Ecevit's election victory that the Turks would advance proposals for a negotiated settlement of the Cyprus problem and that these would include substantial territorial concessions. Turkey is now occupying roughly 40 percent of the island.

But the Turkish proposals advanced last month included virtually no territorial concessions.Nor did the proposals suggest a possible basis for compromise.

[While Ecevit's reaction in Bonn appeared restrained, a Turkish Cabinet minister in Ankara told Post special correspondent John Lawton that Turkey would dismantle all U.S. bases on its territory and terminate "its special relationship with Washington" if the embargo remains in force.]

During his stay in the West German capital, Ecevit received support from Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, who said the Bonn government "shares the opinion of President Carter that this embargo should be ended."

The embargo was imposed after Turkey invaded Cyprus in 1974 using American arms, which are the only ones they have. The invasion, however, took place after a Greek-supporter military junta briefly overthrew the established government on the island, where Turkish Cypriots account for about 18 percent of the population.

Ecevit said the Senate committee vote did "not come as a surprise for us." While "the final result is not clear yet and there are further procedural steps to be taken," he added, Turkey was neverthless preparing itself for the prospect that the embargo would be continued.

Ecevit claimed that his government wanted a solution to the Cyprus problem as soon as possible and a return to friendly relations with Greece and "that is why we were insistent on the lifting of the embargo."

Ecevit said the embargo is a matter that "interests the whole of NATO as much as it does Turkey. That is why it should be a problem for the other members as much as it is for us.

Ecevit has said the embargo has also contributed to Turkey's economic problems because it has had to spend much more of its money on defense, without any U.S. aid.

The Soviet Union has offered to discuss arms supplies to Ankara, and Ecevit is scheduled to visit Moscow next month.

Ecevit said his government did not resent the embargo from "a standpoint of our independence."

"The defense of Turkey cannot be left to other nations or to decisions . . . in the congresses of overseas countries. Turkey has been able to provide her own security all through her history . . . and she will find a way in the future," he said.

On the other hand, at a press conference here Thursday, Ecevit seemed to warn that economic problems could soon force Ankara to reduce its contribution to NATO.

Yesterday, Bonn agreed to a new $50 million credit for Turkey anlast week opproved some $65 million in capital aid.