The Soviet Union maintained its attack on Zbigniew Brzezinski yesterday, calling him a cold warrior whose entire career has been aimed at "enmity toward the world of socialism" and who is now seeking to guide American relations with the Soviet Union in the same direction.

The Communist Party daily Pravda, in a lengthy review of Brezezinski's views, said the president's national security adviser holds to the idea that international conflict is a natural part of modern global relations.

"Detente does not tally with Brzezinski's theory of international conflicts," wrote Pravada Sergi Vishnevsky.

"Cold war would be by far the more preferable, as it would be profitable for the United States. True, he now terms detente as a combination of rivalry and cooperation, but the main emphasis is still on rivarly, which is substantiated in his paper.

"Such a negative attitude is in sharp contrast with the official statement by the White House on the desirability of improving relations with the U.S.S.R. and achieving such a rapproachment with it, from which both sides may gain."

In the current climate of strained Soviet-American relation, the Kremlin had already singled out Brzezinski for special criticism. Rarely in recent years has Moscow sought with such vehemence to blame a single-personality for problems in superpower ties.

Charging that Brezezinski "does not conceal his yearning for the lost strategic supremacy" of the United States, Pravda said the president's aide believes that "the natural character of international conflicts" has not changed since his days as head of Columbia University's Russian Institute.

Pravda added that Brezezinski was especially "gratified to find in Peking during his May trip there "a frame of mind that is so close to his. He noted his common views with the Chinese leaders and described as 'brilliant' the analysis of the international situation given by (Chinese leader) Hua Kuo-feng."

The Kremlin, in an authoritative analysis of Soviet-American relations last month, cautioned the Carter administration against "playing the China card" - seeking to build in anti-Soviet alliance with the Soviets' bittee ideological enemy. Brzezinski, an outspoken advocate of improved U.S. relations with China, has borne the brunt of Kremlin comments on this sensitive point.

"The theories and recommendations of the head of the National Security Council inflict no small damage to the cause of detente." Vishnevsky wrote. "But they do not take into account the most important realities of the present: The growth of the forces of world socialism . . . The concept of confrontation holds no promise in the long run and the Washington strategists would be weil advised to understand it."

The Pravda commentary, undoubtedly prepared by Vishnevsky in consultation with Central Committee members, comes at a time when both capitals after exchanging serious charges seem to be seeking to moderate their tone. Carter has taken the unusual step of modifying his criticism of the Soviet Union for the recent political trials of Alexander Ginzburg and Anatoly Scharansky. While this attack on Brezezinski echoed previous attacks, it lacked the vitriolic lone of earlier articles.

At the same time, the Kremlin has denounced the president's decision to cancel the sale of a big computer system to the Soviets for the Olympic games and of a plant to produce sophisticated drill bits and similar equipment for Soviet oil fields, where the government must greatly increase exploitation. Carter took the action in retaliation for the Ginzburg-Scharansky trails.

Tass, the official Soviet news agency, in a typical comment on that action, declared yesterday that the cancellation of the contracts "contradicts the spirit of detente. But they have never brought any dividends to those who made them." Tass said the ban will eventually hit the United States because it is "no less interested than the Soviet Union in the development of commercial, economic and scientific ties between the two countries."

Meanwhile, the Foreign Ministry rejected a protest from the U.S. embassy over the trespass attack on an American diplomat last week by a Soviet policeman inside the embassy compound. The Foreign Ministry is reported to have blamed the diplomat, second secretary Raymond F. Smith, for falling to identify himself to the guard.

The uniformed policeman darted into the embassy compound last Thursday, seized Smith from behind, ripping his jacket, and with the help of two other police, dragged him out on the street where he was released. Smith represented the United States at the recent trial of Jewish dissident Scharansky, where he stood outside the courthouse for five days.