Almost every American taxpayer faces a higher total federal tax bill next year, even if the $16 billion taxcut approved by the House Ways and Means Committee last week were to be enacted, according to new congressional figures.

Tables compiled by the Joint Committee on Taxation show that the tax reduction provided in the Ways and Means Committee measure would not offset the impact of inflation and higher Social Security Taxes for most taxpayers.

After those two factors are taken into account, the tax burden for so-called "middle income" taxpayers - those in the $20,000-to $30,000-a-year bracket - would, rise by between $83 and $261 a year.

And the total federal tax bite on taxpayers in the $10,000-a-year-and-under income brackets - just above next year's expected poverty line - would rise by between $29 and $40 a year.

The only group of taxpayers who would enjoy overall tax relief as a result of the Ways and Means bill would be those in the $15,000 bracket. By a fluke, they would pay $2 to $3 less in taxes.

The increases in overall federal tax burdens stem from two factors: the impact of inflation, which pushes taxpayers into higher brackets, and the increase Congress voted last December in 1979 payroll taxes.

The tax cuts President Carter proposed in January would have offset both inflation and payroll taxes for all but a minority of taxpayers who earn $40,000 a year or more. The exception primarily affected two-earner families.

However, Carter's proposal was for a heftier $24.5 billion in tax reductions, with the cuts skewed mainly to taxpayers earning less than $15,000. The committee's bill would primarily benefit those in the $20,000- to $50,000-brackets.

The rate of inflation this year is expected to be at least 7 percent, with wage increases running even higher. The income boost is expected to result in some $8 billion in higher taxes .

The scheduled increases in Social Security taxes will raise payroll taxes to 6.13 percent of the first $22,000 in earnings, effective Jan. 1. Without these, the rate would have been 6.05 percent of $18,900.

The income tax reductions in the committee's bill are proportionally about the same for most income brackets. As a result, most of the relief goes to those who pay the most taxes ordinarily - those in the $20,000- to $50,000-group.

Here is how the total federal tax burdens of taxpayers in various income brackets would be affected after taking account of the committee bill, the impact of inflation and the scheduled rise in payroll taxes: