Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash.), chairman of a Senate investigating subcommittee, has subpoenaed a quantity of documents from Dresser Industries of Dallas related to its oil-drill deal with the Soviet Union.

Jackson's action came to light yesterday, a day after President Carter informed him that he intended to allow Dresser to proceed with the $145 million transaction.

Jackson, among other cities, had urged the administration to cancel Dresser's export licenses as a response to the Soviet Union's trials to political dissidents.

Other administration officials, including National Security Affairs Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski and Energy Secretary James R. Schlesinger, also had urged the president to reconsider the license approvals.

Dresser, a multinational corporation that produces machinery for energy and natural resources development, is assisting the Soviet Union in setting up a plant to produce hard-tip drill bits for use in petroleum exploration.

Carter earlier canceled, a pending deal between the Soviets and Sperry Rand, an American firm, for a computer that was to have been used by the Tass news agency.

Jackson, meanwhile, announced that his permanent subcommittee on investigations would conduct an inquiry into the review procedures being used by the administration for issuing export licenses. The subpoena to Dresser, a Jackson aide said, is part of that process.