Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin said yesterday that he hopes an Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty can be signed Dec. 9, the day before he and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat are to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo.

Begin, who leaves on a trip to the United States and Canada today, told members of his Likud Party in Jerusalem that "a number of serious obstacles have been overcome" in the peace talks in Washington and that it may be possible to get a final agreement quickly.

He said Dec. 9 had been mentioned as a possible date for signing and added: "If the treaty will be ready by then, I think this will be the best day."

Begin said problems remain, however, and cautioned: "Great care must be taken regarding what I am saying . . . There is no guarantee, and I cannot promise a date. But there is a chance."

Elsewhere in the Middle East, a six-member committee of Arab foreign ministers met in Baghdad to draft a working paper in preparation for a summit meeting of Arab heads of state aimed at thwarting Egyptian-Israeli peace moves.

Foreign ministers and other officials from 20 countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization were trying to resolve their differences and present a united front. The Arab summit will begin tomorrow and will bring together all of the members of the Arab League except Egypt, which was not invited.

The viewpoints represented range from moderate Saudi Arabia to Marxist South Yemen, an ally of the Soviet Union. One group, which includes Syria, wants a political and economic boycott of Egypt, while another, including Saudi Arabia, is opposed to increasing Egypt's isolation in the Arab world.