On the eve of Chinese Vice Premier Teng Hsiaoping's visit to Washington, Albanian Communist leader Enver Hoxha made a stinging attack on China's leadership, accusing it of plotting with the United States to achieve total world domination.
The attack was contained in a lavishly produced 460-page book by Hoxha, who until last year was China's staunchest ally, distibuted by the Albanian Embassy to fore correspondents here today.
Hoxha, whose book is entitled "Imperialism and the Revolution," predicted that what he called China's feverish efforts to become a superpower could unleash a nuclear war.
Hoxha, 70, a self-avowed disciple of the late Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, poured scorn on the twists and turns in Chinese foreign policy over the last two decades.He pointed out that at the 8th Chinese Communist Party Congress in 1956, "U.S. imperialism was regarded as the main threat. At the 9th Congress in 1969, "U.S. imperialism and Soviet social imperialism" were regarded as equal dangers, while the 10th Congress in 1973 proclaimed "Soviet social imperialism" the main enemy.
"With such waverings, it is not impossible that later congresses could come out in support of Soviet social imperialism and proclaim U.S. imperialism as the man enemy and this will go on until China, too, attains its goal of becoming a great capitalist power," Hoxha said.
The ultimate aim of both the United States and China, he claimed, is to "bump each other off" and dominate the world.He accused the Chinese leadership of desiring "a frontal clash between the United States and the Soviet Union in Europe, during which China, from a comfortable distance away, would warm its hands at the atomic holocaust that would destroy its two main rivals."
The dispute between Albania and China, respectively the world's smallest and largest Communist countries, came out into the open last summer when Peking announced the cancellation of economic and military aid totalling $5 billion to its former Balkan ally. Albania, whose 2.5 million inhabitants live in virtually total isolation from the outside world, opposed China's more outward-looking foreign policy.
Hoxha's latest book constitutes Albania's bitterest attack yet on the country it once described as "the bastion of world revolution." For the first time, Hoxha has explicitly criticized Mao Tse-tung, saying the late Chinese leader ruled Cnina like a personal fief and was not a true Marxist-Leninist.
He fails to explain why he took a different attitude for 17 years from 1961, following Albania's split with Moscow, during which period Sino-Albanian friendship was described as "unbreakable" and "as deep as the oceans and as high as the mountains separating the two countries."
The Albanian leader also has harsh words for Teng Hsiao-ping whom he accuses of seeking to "eliminate the obstacle of [Chinese Party Chairman] Hua Kuo-feng" and to make himself "an all-powerful fascist dictator."
Hoxha, a Paris-educated Marxist who came to power in Albania after leading a guerrilla uprising during World Warr II, quoted U.S. press accounts to support his view that the United States and China were drawing closer.
Claiming that President Carter was using China to gain an advantage over the Kremlin, he added: "The U.S. is interested in giving China all-round political, military, and economic aid to incite it against the Soviet Union.It has given China atomic secrets."
Although Hoxha now clearly considers China his country's main enemy, he rules out any rapprochement with Moscow. Over the last few months Soviet leaders have expressed an interest in improving relations with Albania, a highly strategic Balkan country sandwiched between Yugoslavia and Greece at the mouth of the Adriatic.
For the first time in many years, Albania has now been left without a patron. After breaking successively with three more powerful Communist countries -- Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, and China -- it now sees itself as the sole "true Marxist-Leninist" state in the world.
It is perhaps not surprising, therefore, that Hoxha warns his followers against "foolish overconfidence," adding that "the capitalist-revisionist encirclement and the pressure it exerts on us must never be underrated." Despite this, he remains convinced that "Marxiam-Leninism will triumph" and that "American imperialism, Soviet social imperialism, and Chinese revisionism" will all be defeated.