Despite assurances last year from Central Intelligence Director Stansfield Turner that the CIA's mind-control program was phased out over a decade ago, the intelligence agency has come up with new documents indicating that the work went on into the 1970s, according to a new book.
John Marks, the author of the book, said the CIA mind-control researchers did apparently drop their much publicized MK-ULTRA drug-testing program. But they replaced it, according to Marks, with another supersecret behavioral-control project under the agency's Office of Research and Development.
The ORD program used a cover organization set up in the 1960s outside Boston headed by Dr. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid, who acted as a "figurehead," said Marks in his book. The project investigated such research as genetic engineering, development of new strains of bacteria, and mind control.
The book identifies the Massachusetts proprietary organization headed by Land as the Scientific Engineering Institute. The CIA-funded institute was originally set up as a radar and technical research company in the 1950s and shifted over to mind-control experiments in the 1960s, according to the book. Land could not be reached for comment yesterday.
In testimony last year before a Senate committee, Turner indicated that most of the CIA's mind-control work ended in the 1960s with the exception of a few scattered programs. According to Marks, however, the ORD program was a full-scale one and just as secret as the earlier MK-ULTRA project.
A CIA spokesman said yesterday that the intelligence agency had not reviewed Marks' book and would make no comment until it did.
In his book, Marks said he learned of the program last year when the CIA notified him that it had located 130 boxes of material on the project after he filed a Freedom of Information Act request.
Marks, a former State Department intelligence officer and frequent CIA critic, is the author of "The Search for the 'Manchurian Candidate,"' which is scheduled to be released next month. The book is based on about 16,000 pages of information on the MK-ULTRA and other mind-control experiments that were released in 1977 and 1978.
In researching the material, Marks said he found that CIA mind-control researchers trained secret police in Uruguay and South Korea, and funded an extensive program of LSD and shock-treatment research at McGill University in Canada.
According to the book, Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, at the Allen Memorial Institute at McGill, ran the experiments which were paid for by the CIA. Cameron, who died in 1967, received the money throught he Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, another Cia/ front. It is unknown if Cameron was aware that the money came from te CIA.
Marks said the experiments at McGill included giving unknowing subjects with mental problems massive doses of LSD and subjecting them to long-term shock treatment in an effort to "depattern" them and plant new behavior methods in their minds. About half of the subjects were left with long-term amnesia from the treatment, which had little beneficial effect, Marks said.
In addition, the CIA, under its MK-SEARCH project, funded a Baltimore biological laboratory run by an ex-CIA agent to insure that the agency had a "quick delivery" germ warfare capability, the Marks book reports. The project was kept secret even from the Army, which had its own germ warfare center at Fort Detrick where the CIA was also doing research.
According to the book the CIA's far-reaching drug-research program, which eventually involved 80 universities and other institutions, was set off in part because of a mathematical error by an agency analyst.
In 1951, the author says, word reached the CIA that the Soviets had purchased 50 million doses of LSD from the Swiss Sandoz company. In fact, the Soviets bought only 50 doses of the hallucinogen. But Marks said CIA officials were so alarmed at the potential of the purchase they stepped up their own fledgling drug program and rushed two agents to Switzerland with $240,000 in a black bag to buy 100 million LSD doses for themselves.
The deal fell through, the book says, because startled Sandoz officials admitted they didn't have enough LSD to meet the CIA request.
Marks, along with former CIA agent Victor Marchetti, wrote "The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence," which was heavily censored by the agency before publication.