Whites don't dislike blacks as much as most blacks think they do, according to a new poll of racial attitudes done for the National Conference of Christians and Jews.
The nationwide survey, conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, found whites are far more tolerant of integration than they were in 1963 and are less given to racial stereotyping of blacks.
However, most blacks still see themselves as targets of racial discrimination, according to the poll released yesterday.
The poll was based on interviews with 2,405 individuals, a national cross-section of 1,673 whites and 732 blacks, last Oct. 8-22.
White interviewees were asked if they would be personally concerned if their teen-aged children dated blacks, if blacks moved next to them, if their children brought home blacks for dinner.
There were also numerous questions about black-white relations in jobs and education, and about white attitudes toward blacks in general.
Some of the major statistical findings of the poll, set out in a 27-page report, are that:
No more than 16 percent of all whites favor segregation. For example, since 1963, the number of whites who would be "disturbed" at having black neighbors dropped from 51 percent to 27 percent.
Thirty-five percent of all whites favor full integration, including interracial marriage and dating. Forty-two percent of the whites interviewed said they fovored integration "in some areas."
Sixty-six percent of all blacks interviewed said they favored full integration, a figure roughly consistent with black response to the same question in 1963, according to the poll.
The report said there are wide disparities between whites' perceptions of blacks and blacks' perceptions of themselves, especially in the area of jobs. The perception gaps "are all sources of real conflict and tension" between the races, the pollsters said.
For example, 43 percent of all blacks interviewed said unemployment was "far and away the most serious problem" confronting them. However, only 11 percent of the whites surveyed saw unemployment as a major problem besetting blacks.
In addition, 73 percent of all blacks interviewed felt that they are -- or would be -- discriminated against in seeking promotions to managerial positions. But only 23 percent of the white interviewees agreed with them, the poll said.
Harris noted that: "There is little doubt that most blacks in 1978 still feel their status is very much at a second-class level. By the same token, whites see much of the former discrimination now so alleviated that it is well on the way to being wiped out."
The pollster said the differences come about because, "For blacks, the pain of discrimination can be highly personal and costly. For whites their major source of pain in this process can be a guilty conscience.
"In this uneven process, felt discrimination can be consuming. For whites, the way to ease a potentially gnawing conscience is to see the progress, rationalizing how much worse things could have been for blacks had the past 15 years not been lived through."
That point won cautious agreement from Eleanor Holmes Norton, head of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
"The rhetoric of equality is now the all-American rhetoric, and that's progress," Holmes said in a telephone interview.
"But," she continued, "I am forced Holmes said in a telephone interview. what people say and what they do. And what I see is increasing ghettoization in large cities, a black unemployment rate that is twice what it was in 1969 and the resegregation of the nation's public schools."
Holmes said she would also agree with Harris' basic conclusion that blacks have made real progress in the past 15 years. "For example, there is a black middle class to speak of now, whereas, in 1960, most blacks (51 percent) were living below the poverty level," she said.
For his part, Harris said yesterday that his survey shows that "America is still largely a responsive society.... The lights have not gone out nor even dimmed on the hope for (racial) progress."