A gloomy, disillusioned and resentful King Hussein criticized his American protectors' "arm-twisting" efforts to extract Jordanian backing for the Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement today and predicted the treaty could even lead to further upheavals.

As a result of his refusal to back the proposed treaty, "I don't think there's ever been in the past a misunderstanding like this one that exists now between Jordan and the United States," he told four American correspondents.

The 43-year-old monarch, in the first such interview since the Egyptian-Israeli accord was announced, predicted further long-term "deterioration of our relations." His comments, on the terrace of his Hashemiah Palace, came only two days after the visit here of presidential adviser Zbigniew Brezezinski designed to blunt Saudi and Jordanian opposition to the pact.

"One way or the other," Hussein prophesied the forthcoming treaty signing will entail a break in Egypt's diplomatic relations with those Arab nations it has not already broken with.

In turn, he feared an anti-American backlash and hoped that the Arabs would not "go so far" as to break diplomatic ties with Washington. America's one-time favorite front-line Arab leader said President Carter has invited him to visit Washington fairly soon and that he plans to go "if the invitation is still good."

The estrangement between Jordan and the United States has degenerated so far that the monarch said "we will have to look around" for alternative sources of supply for his U.S.-equipped armed forces.

"We have reached that point," he said.

Chain-smoking cigarettes in the only outward sign of tension, the king said the only result of the peace accord was to allow Israel to achieve "its vital objective of removing Egypt from the equation and consolidating its hold on the Israeli-occupied territories."

He added that the peace treaty allows Israel to pose a "possible threat to effect even further changes on the ground involving us in other problems" and suggested that Lebanon could well be the venue.

Hussein, who regards the Egyptian-Israeli pact as fraught with "very dangerous results for both American and our interests," recounted his incredulity at recent U.S. diplomacy.

"We got a whole series of messages telling us of the good news and achievements," he said ironically, "as if they were expecting us to jump for joy.

"When Washington comes around," he said, "it is not taking into consideration the real feelings of the people. It is asking people to acquiesce or support a totally unacceptable situation."

Fairly obvious "arm-twisting" was exerted by the United States right after the mid-September Camp David accords. It eased in November at the time of the Baghdad Arab summit, "but now it has started again," the king said.

"If you go along, the American Congress and Senate and public opinion will be very happy," he quoted American officials as saying. "If not, they won't be. This has been the general line."

Expressing his anger at such tactics, the king said, "For the first time the Americans asked us to keep quiet please."

"Don't make any statements or noise that could affect the peace process," he quoted them as saying.

"Obviously, we resent it," he said. "We never heard such an approach before. Maybe because we were the only ones [in the Arab world] defending the concept of relations with the United States."

The king's patience also was strained by suggestions from the Carter administration that the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty could entice Jordan, Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf moderates into some sort of regional security arrangement with the Jewish state against Soviet and radical encroachments Washington sees in the Middle East.

The king made it clear that Israeli occupation of Arab land and expansionism were the dominant threats perceived in Arab capitals. In apparent allusion to the Brzezinski mission, Hussein said, "We asked which threats are we facing? Zionism or communism? Where does Israel fit into this threat?"

He reiterated his months-old stand that "we have no intention of joining" negotiations on West Bank and Gaza Strip autonomy unless "we know the end results." In his parlance, that means Israeli evacuation, return of Arab Jerusalem and Palestinian self-determination that in theory could lead to a sovereign West Bank state.

Hussein predicted worsening bilateral relations with Washington. Causing the friction, he said, will be the Arab world's decisions at a planned Arab League foreign and economic ministers' meeting to implement action against Egypt decided at the Baghdad summit in November.

Expelling Egypt from the Arab League, removing the league capital from Cairo and boycotting "Trojan Horse" economic dealings with Israeli firms using Egyptian partners were the main issues, he said.

He also predicted that Saudi Arabia, which bankrolls the Egyptian economy with about $1.5 billion annually, will cut off funds earmarked for military confrontation and the Egyptian-based Arab arms industry.

These punitive measures, Hussein said, are likely to lead to a backlash in Washington. "The United States unfortunately will consider these actions as actions against the United States and its policies," he said, "and this could cause a deterioration of our relations with the United States for a long time to come -- for Jordan and the rest of the Arabs."

Professing he was "at a loss" to suggest what could be done to avoid such an outcome, he said, "Only time can rectify the situation."

Jordan and other Arabs should build their military strength, cultivate Western Europe, try to get the Middle East question back into the U.N. Security Council and wait until the United States sees the error of its present policy, Hussein said.

"Sadly, des ite my total confidence in the inc rity of re ident [Carter] and Was ington, the United States is in an almost impossible position," he added.