Tanzania and Zambia today recognized the new provisional government of Uganda, just one day after invading troops captured Kampala, the capital, and chased out dictator Idi Amin.
The new government called for a manhunt for Amin, who was believed to be in an area still controlled by forces loyal to him, and charged in a radio broadcast that Amin was responsible for as many as a half million deaths and "deserves the gallows."
Despite the prompt recognition by two black African countries, other states seemed reluctant to grant formal recognition until the new government headed by exile Ugandans has established control over more of the Oregon-sized country. As of tonight, the combined force of Tanzanian army and Ugandan exile troops was holding about half of Uganda's territory.
[A State Department spokesman said in Washington that the United States is prepared to normalize relations "once a new government is formally established in Kampala." In New York, the Ugandan U.N. mission was handed over peacefully to representatives of the new government.]
U.S. officials said Washington would watch the response of black African states for guidance before making a final decision.
British Foreign Secretary David Owen said in London that despite his country's sympathies for the new authorities, recognition by Britain depends on their being "at least in control of the situation and able to speak for the majority" of Ugandans.
Also involved, according to intelligence sources here, was the desire to short-circuit Amin's alleged efforts to persuade Iraq, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Syria to provide troops to turn the situation in his favor.
In a victory speech in his capital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere announced recognition even before the new Ugandan authorities, reported delayed by bad weather, could fly to Kampala from their exile homes in nearby countries.
Nyerere and Ugandan exiles obviously hoped Tanzania's recognition would prompt a chain reaction of similar moves by friendly nations-especially the United States.
Speaking as looters continued to pick over Kampala homes and offices and Tanzanian troops flushed out pockets of pro-Amin forces, Nyerere defended his invasion, which marked the first time an independent black African state had invaded another and toppled its ruler.
Betraying his sensitivity to black African criticism of his invasion, Nyerere said, "I think I've set a good precedent inasmuch as when African nations found themselves incapable collectively of punishing a single country that each country has to look after itself."
He castigated critics who complained that he had broken international law as "liars" and said "I'm prepared to go personally to the United Nations to answer such charges."
Comparing Amin to Hitler, and re-calling that Amin himself and set the present events in train by invading Tanzania last October, Nyerere said Tanzanian actions were "a lesson to Amin and others" that by invading another country "one is liable to lose one's own life."
Amin remained elusive after his radio broadcast last night on Uganda's external services, which was repeated twice this morning until the transmitter in the eastern town of Siroti went silent at midday.
Despite his broadcast claims of still being in complete control and his orders to the armed forces to fight on, residents in eastern Uganda reported that the remnants of his army were in no shape to make a last stand on his behalf.
Some reports placed Amin in Busia, near the Kenyan border, not far from Mbale and Jinja. There, bedraggled Ugandan troops reportedly were shooting in the air and looting shops.
Symptomatic of the new Ugandan edginess was a Radio Uganda domestic broadcast that ridiculed Amin's claims of being in control and in Kampala.
"Ugandans who love the motherland must from now on try to find Amin wherever he is," the broadcast said, indirectly conceding its inability to pinpoint his movements. "He deserves the gallows.'
In Kampala, men, women and children participated in what some residents dubbed the "night of the wheel-barrows" as looters worked around the clock and into the second day making off with steadily declining supplies of anything movable.
Tanzanian troops, mopping up pockets of armed resistance, did little more than discourage looters caught in the act.
In flushing out the remaining pockets of pro-Amin troops, the Tanzanians tended to shoot before asking questions.
They showed no signs of pursuing Amin and his army, who left the city along the road to Jinja, 40 miles east of the capital.
Many of the 10,000 Kampala residents who had attended a victory rally-intended to welcome provisional President Yusufu Lule and his colleagues-showed up with looted goods.
Special targets were government office buildings and state documents lay strewn in many Kampala streets.
Senteza Kajuba, vice chancellor of Makerere College, said, "What will happen when the new minister of education enters his office and there is no chair for him and no typewriter for his secretary?"
"We'd like to see another demonstration, with people marching back to government offices to return the things they have taken," he said.
Rally participants, apparently needing his message, left behind office chairs, files, trays and other office equipment.
Elsewhere residents barricaded themselves behind locked doors. One told a caller, "I've got the telephone in one hand and a machete in the other," as he eyed would-be looters in the street.
Adding to residents' anxiety was the knowledge that Tanzanian troops had emptied Kampala's Luzira Prison of 3,800 prisoners, some of them criminals.
Also freed were political prisoners and about a thousand Ugandan soldiers, many of them young boys who said they had refused to fight the Tanzanian-led invasion force.
Capt. Sam Walugembe, a Mig Fighter pilot in the Air Force, said he has been jailed for refusing to bomb Tanzania.
He said he and many other prisoners had been scheduled to be hanged on Tuesday, the day the Tanzanians captured most of the capital.
"We couldn't believe it when suddenly our cell doors were opened and Tanzanian troops said we were free," he said. "I had expected to die and instead I find myself celebrating the end of Amin's regime."
Indicative of the new authorities' pragmatic approach to their task, only the most senior police and prison officials have been arrested. Their staffs have been asked to report with their weapons to the nearest military post.
Pro-Amin stragglers were given another 12 hours to surrender themselves and their weapons or "be declared enemies of this free republic and dealt with accordingly."
Tanzanian forces were also busy in many parts of Kampala restoring the water and electricity, which they cut Tuesday afternoon upon first entering the capital. Another sign of an attempt to return to normal was the broadcast order to civil servants to the turn to work Friday. CAPTION: Picture 1 and 2, KENNETH KAUNDA, JULIUS NYERERE Leaders of nearby African states condemn Amin and recognize new government.