Bishop Abel Muzorewa, elected prime minister last week of Rhodesia's first majority government, yesterday called on the United States to lift economic sanctions against Rhodesia and begin providing aid.

Otherwise, Muzorewa said, his government probably would be forced to continue accepting aid from South Africa. If American assistance "is not forth coming." he said, "we'll get it from anywhere. If the devil comes and says, 'I'm going to save you,' I'll let him save me."

Speaking on "Issues and Answers" (ABC, WJLA), Muzorewa accused President Carter of "just trying to appease a few black individuals" by continuing sanctions. Rhodesia now "has a situation where people ar attempting to create a democracy like his [President Carter's] own and he is paying a deaf ear to that . . . I'm certianly confused now as to what his human rights [campaign] is all about."

In response to criticism that the new regime will allow whites-4 percent of Rhodesia's population-to exercise too much control, Muzorewa made the following points:

"All the key and powerful posts" in his government will be held by blacks, including the officials who control the military.

Prime Minister Ian Smith, who needs the white government that will be supplanted in June, may get a government post but "he will just be one out of hundreds."

At the same time, the whites in Rhodesia are encouraged to actively participate in the government and are necessary for the country's survival.

"They are people who are born and bred in this contry," he said, and have "skills and education" that "we want them to use for the benefit of all.What's wrong with that?"

Muzorewa also encouraged leaders of the guerrilla movement at war with Rhodesia to join the new government under a program of "amnesty to all."

In the wake of last week's elections, the Carter administration is facing increasing pressure to lift economic sanctions against Rhodesia. Under the so called Case-Javits amendment enacted last year, Carter is required to lift sanctions if he finds, among other things, that a fair and open election has installed a black majority government.

Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance said on Thursday that the administration soon will receive election reports from observers in Rhodesia. The reports will aid in Carter's decision on sanctions.

"We would hope now that people would be sensible enough, clean-minded enough to say that there is now majority rule, a government popularly elected," and lift the sanctions, Muzorewa said.