Iran's revolutionary government, outraged by Senate criticism of its Islamic firing squads, told the United States yesterday to postpone sending a new ambassador to Tehran and warned that such "interference" could lead Iran to "limit" relations with Washington.

The Foreign Ministry's move, announced by the official Pars news agency, followed a stinging personal attack by Iran's Islamic patriarch, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, on President Carter, Sen. Jacob K. Javits (R-N.Y.) and the U.S. government in general.

Taken together, the developments marked a severe setback for U.S. efforts to improve relations with the new Islamic government that took over Iran last February after the fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, a strong American ally backed by carter almost until he fled the country.

They reflected increasing irritation in Iran at official American criticism and what Iranian officials see as negative press coverage of the Islam-based justice being handed out to former officials of the shah's government and secret police, U.S. analysts said.

At least 200 persons have been executed since the new government took over, most after secret hearings that ignored the standards and procedures of justice commonly accepted in the West.

Carter's nominee as the new U.S. ambassador, Walter L. Cutler, was confirmed last week and had been expected to take up his new post some time in June, U.S. officials said. The Iranian Foreign Ministry, however, asked him to stay away "until such time as the politicial atmosphere between Iran and the United States is cleared."

Javits, was singled out as the sponsor of a resolution adopted by the Senate last Thursday expressing "abhorrence" at what it called "summary executions without due process" ordered by special tribunals run by Khomeini's network of Islamic committees.

Javits and his wife, Marion, also were cited by the president of the revolutionary tribunal for "corruption and misappropriation of Iranian public funds."

The tribunal leader, Ayatollah Sadegh Khalakali, told the Iranian newspaper Bambad that the senator and his wife are wanted in Iran on those charges because of Mrs. Javits' work for a public relations firm handling the Iranian national airlines account in the days of the shah and because of Javits' political stand on behalf of the shah.

Mrs. Javits resigned from the firm, Ruder & Finn, in January 1976 after unfavorable comment charging that her work for Iran Air might lead to a conflict of interest because of Javits' seat on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

[Informed of Khalakali's charges, Javits said, "It's just ridiculous," a spokesman told United Press International.]

The Javits resolution was backed by several senators, including majority leader Robert C. Byrd and Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Frank Church. In it, the Senate warns that prospects for good relations between Iran and the United States "would be seriously harmed by the prolongation of these violent and offensive actions."

Khomeini, whose remarks at his headquarters in the holy city of Qom were relayed by the official Iranian radio, responded directly to the resolution, saying:

"Well, we hope to God that they are endangered. What do we want to do with the United States?"

He said Javits is "not even capable of thinking beyond materialistic matters and in his view there is nothing else in the world but materialistic matters."

U.S. officials noted that Javits is a likely target for Khomeini's wrath not only because of the Senate resolution, but also because of his reputation as a supporter of Israel and of the shah while he was in power.

Since Khomeini's revolution, Iran has severed its once friendly ties with Israel and expressed strong support for the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Arab cause. What was once the Israeli legation in Tehran has been turned over to the PLO.

Broadening his attack, Khomeini told a group of visiting tribesmen that Carter's declared concern for human rights is a mockery because Carter is incapable of dealing with "matters such as humanity."

"Although the American government has condemned us, we have to see what the American people have to say about it," he said, according to news agency accounts, "because the U.S. government is like an injured snake at the moment because of our victory, but peoples are not like that."

The official U.S. attitude should be of no concern to Iran in any case, he added, because "we have no need for the United States."

"It is they who need us . . . as a source of oil, for which their greed never ceases," he said, alluding to fuel shortages in the United States.

Khomeini also attacked other governments, saying it is natural "that the governments and the assemblies of the United States, the Soviet Union and Great Britain would come out condemning us, because, since superpowers are not concerned about our welfare, they cannot be grateful for our revolution."

Referring to the Javits resolution, Khomeini said it would be "illogical" to expect the Senate to approve the executions because "no country was profiting from Iran as much as the United States." CAPTION: Picture, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini