Some key dates in the history of colonialism and the drive for independence in Rhodesia:
1890-Pioneer column trekked from South Africa into Rhodesia and on Sept. 12 hoisted British flag over Fort Salisbury.
1923-Southern Rhodesia become a British self-governing colony.
1933-Federation of three countries known today as Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia approved by whites.
1957-Joshua Nkomo, together with George Nyandoro and James Chikerema (both now in the new Salisbury government), form the African National Congress to begin struggle for black majority rule.
1961-Nkomo founds the Zimbawe African People's Union (ZAPU).
1963-Federation dissolved. Zambia and Malawi begin process leading to their independence in 1964. The Rev. Ndabaningi Stihole and Robert Mugabe found the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and break away from Nkomo's ZAPU.
1964-Ian Smith elected prime minister in April. Whites vote to become independent of Britain in November. Nkomo, Sithole and Mugabe begin 10 years in prison.
1965-Smith unilaterally declares independence Nov. 11. Britain announces economic sanctions against rebel regime but take no military action.
1966-Smith meets with then-British prime minister Harold Wilson aboard HMS Tiger in December to discuss a settlement, but no agreement is reached.
1966-After Wilson-Smith talks fail, U.S. Security Counsil votes mandatory economic sanctions against Rhodesia on British motion.
1969-Sithole sentenced to additional six years in prison for plotting to assassinate Smith.
1971-Smith signs agreement in November with Britain's then-foreign secretary Sir Alec Douglas-Home on proposals for a settlement. In December, Bishop Abel Muzorewa founds the African National Council to oppose them.
1972-British commission under Lord Pearcesurveys African opinion from January to March and finds proposals unacceptable to black population. Dec. 21, first guerrilla attack on a white farm in northern Rhodesia, marking start of guerrilla war.
1974 - In December, Sithole, Nkomo, Mugabe and others are released from prison, flown to Lusaka and agree to unite under Muzorewa's council.
1975 - In August, conference of all black nationalist leaders, Ian Smith, Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda and then-South African prime minister John Vorster at Victoria Falls bridge. No agreement. In September, African National Council splits up.
1976 - Mugabe and Sithole set up rival ZANU factions. Talks between Smith and Nkomo fail in March. Secretary of State Kissinger meets Smith in Pretoria in September and gets him to agree to majority rule in two years. In October Nkomo and Mugabe form the Patrotic Front in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to Geneva's conference of Smith and black leaders on Kissinger proposals, which fails to reach agreement.
1977 - In September, new set of British-American proposals presented to Smtih by Britain's David Owen and America's Andrew Young. No agreement. Smith begins talks in December inside Rhodesia with Muzorewa, Sithole and Chief Jeremiah Chirau.
1978 - March 3, Smith reaches accord on a settlement and a biracial interim government with three black leaders.
1979 - April 17-21, elections of 72 black members of a 100-seat parliament on basis of universal adult suffrage. CAPTION: Picture 1, Guerrillas frequently ambush civilian convoys such as this; Picture 2, Black volunteers in Rhodesian Army operate a grenade launcher.