Sen. Edward Kennedy's popularity among voters in the nation's two largest states is more than twice that of President Carter, two separate polls show.

A survey of 850 Democrats in New York shows the Massachusetts Democrat outpolling Carter 47 percent to 20 percent. California Gov. Edmund G. (Jerry) Brown was third with 10 percent, and 23 percent had no opinion.

In Brown's home state, Kennedy drew 59 percent, twice as much support as Carter and Brown combined. A cross-sectional voter survey gave Carter 17 percent and Brown 14, while 10 percent expressed no preference.

Kennedy has denied consistently that he will oppose Carter's reelection bid next year, but a battle over a resolution to draft him as a candidate shaped up in Cleveland yesterday. Cuyahoga County Democrats favoring the resolution say the action is designed to wake up President Carter to dissatisfaction with his domestic policies.

The draft resolution will be presented at a convention of 1,550 central committee Democrats this weekend. It has drawn the opposition of several Ohio party leaders, including Sen. John Glenn and Martin J. Hughes, an international vice president of the Communication Workers of America, who say the action could split the party and lead to the election of a Republican president. CAPTION: Picture, Sen. Kennedy: continues to say he won't run.