Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's National security adviser, met yesterday at the White House with Mark Dymshits, one of five Soviet dissidents released in April in a swap for two Soviet spies.

The meeting, just eight days before Carter is to sit down in Vienna with Soviet President Leonid I. Brezhnev, was meant to signal continued U.S. interest in the human rights issue, officials said.

Carter had met earlier yesterday with Georgi Vins, a Baptist activist and another of the five dissidents in the trade. It was a return visit to Washington for Vins, who had attended church here with Carter two days after arriving in the United States.

In an interview last night Dymshits said Brzezinski told him the struggle for human rights continues to be a matter of great concern to Carter. Brzezinski said the United States would continue to press for the release of political prisoners in the Soviet Union, according to Dymshits.

Dymshits gave Brzezinski the names of five Jewish dissidents still in prison in the Soviet Union he said needed American help. Three of them were sentenced with Dymshits in 1970 for taking part in a plot to hijack a Soviet airliner to escape the country.

Most of the participants in that affair have now been released and are living in Israel. Dymshits said he hoped the United States would apply pressure for release of the other three.

The sister of one of them, Iosif Mendelevich, was in Washington, with Dymshits yesterday to plead with whoever would listen for his release.

The sister, Rivka Drori, has lived in Israel since 1971.

Vins testified before the Helsinki Commission, a group of members of Congress and officials set up to monitor the Helsinki agreement on European security.

Vins told the group that U.S. support for Soviet political prisoners and the cause of human rights should be continued. He credited American pressure with helping him and many other imprisoned dissidents.

Vins, who has just received word that his family will join him in this country next week, said "Soviet Christians and Soviet citizens in general are very grateful for President Carter's human rights policy." CAPTION: Picture, MARK DYMSHITS . . . names five who need help