Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev declared tonight that the Kremlin wants this week's summit meeting with President Carter in Vienna "to become an important stage of further development of Soviet-American relations" in peaceful coexistence.

Brezhnev, speaking at a Kremlin dinner for visiting Indian Prime Minister Morarji Desai, cast the upcoming summit in the framework of continuing attempts by the two superpowers to lessen world tension and "do everything to prevent an outbreak of nuclear war."

"I would like to emphasize the political significance of the Vienna meeting as a whole," Brezhnev said in a short address to the Indian leader, on his second visit here since becoming prime minister in 1977.

Brezhnev, 72, looked tanned and energetic today when he met Desai at Vnukovo Airport. The Soviet president and party leader will arrive in Vienna on Friday for a four-day summit with Carter, the first meeting between the two heads of state.

"We are to endorse and sign the treaty on strategic offensive arms limitation," Brezhnev said. "It will be a very important joint step to contain the arms race."

Brezhnev did not directly speak of any other bilateral issues to be discussed in Vienna. But his remarks touched on Soviet concerns over two key strategic neighbors of the Soviet Union and India - China and Afghanistan - where the march of events directly concerns the United States as well.

"China's recent aggression against Vietnam, the continued threats to take up arms again to teach somebody 'a lesson' - all this extremely complicates the situation, creates considerable dangers for Asian countries," Brezhnev said. He said the recent renunciation by Peking of its 30-year treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union due to expire in 1980 "cannot but increase doubts about Peking's aims."

Brezhnev "resolutely condemned" what he termed "subversive actions against the Afghan revolution." The Kremlin's ally, the Marxist revolutionary government in Kabul, is locked in a deepening struggle to retain power there.

Authoritative Western sources said today about 3,000 Soviet civilian advisers and about 1,000 military advisers are in Afghanistan to aid the government of Nur Mohammed Taraki, whose family is reportedly in Moscow for safety.

The Soviet leader implied that Moscow would give the Kabul government more aid, asserting: "We shall not leave in need our friend, the Afghan people, who have the right to build life the way they wish." CAPTION: Picture, Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev shakes hands with Indian Prime Minister Morarji Desai during airport welcoming ceremony in Moscow as Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, left, and Premier Alexei Kosygin look on. UPI