President Carter, described as searching for a consensus on the domestic issues that divide the country and threaten his political future, summoned a second group of unofficial advisers yesterday to his "dimestic summit conference"at Camp David.

Five liberals and moderates from the ranks of organized labor, the civil rights and political reform movements and Democratic politics spent the afternoon and last night witr Carter and his top political advisers.

A senior White House official identiified the five as Clark Ckifford, a Washington lawyer and defenses secretary in the Johnson administration;Lane Kirkland, the executive director of the AFL-CIO;Jesse Jackson, head of a Chicage-based civil rights organization;John Gardner, the formwr head of Common Cause, the so-called citizens lobbying organization, and Robert Keefe, a former political aide to Sen. Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash.) who recently has become an unofficial political adviser in the carter reelection Campaign.

The five men arrived at Camp David the day that eight governors, who spent Friday night with the president and his aides, left the president retreat and flew to Louisville, Ky., for the annual meeting of the National Governors' Association.

The Official said similar meetings with other groups will continue for several days, and that Carter has "cleared his schedule" through Wednesday as he and his most influential advisers grapple with the issues that have brought the president to a low point in personal popularity and and public support.

Today Carter plans to meet with a third group, made up of energy experts from industry and academia, and with Energy Secretary James R. Schlesinger Jr. and White House domestic policy adviser Stuart E. Eizenstat, the official said.

As the extraordinary meetings continued at the presidential retreat in Maryland's Catoctin Mountains, the precise objective of the talks and their likely result remained murky. But the White House official cautioned reporters against overly optimistic expectations.

"There should be no illusion - certainly we have done - that there is a magical solution that a week or two weeks or a month at Camp David would reveal," he said. "It 's will take years."

There has been considerable speculation since the president began the meetings, after canceling a nationally televised speech on energy, that this latest Camp David summit would focus on the internal problems of the administration, possibly resulting in changes in personnel and in the decision-making process. But it was clear from the comments of someparticipants - including the governors and Vice Persident Mondale - that the initial seesions dealt mostly with energy and economic issues.

In Louisville, where he and Rosalynn Carter substituted for the president at the governors' meeting, Mondale predicted that at the end of the Camp David meetings Carter will "give a solid, effective and important statement that will help unify the American people."

Mondale said Carter and his advisers are grappling with "the major domestic challenges jacing the nation" and attempting to deal with the energy shortage "in its broadest possible context."

And in an emotional talk to a rally of Kentucky Democrats, which the president originally was scheduled to address, the first lady said there were "no short-term answers of magical solutions" to the energy and economic problems facing the country.*tBut, in what appeared to be a response to charges that the president is wavering between conflicting advice, she said, "This time for him is a time of decision - not indecision."

"He is competent and hs is optimistic," Mrs. Cater said.

Referring to the search for a national consensus on these issues that others also mentioned, the vice president said Carter views the nation 's current energy and related economic troubles as "the test of our ability to mobilize all the groups in our society to meet a crisis situation."

Mondale said specifically that Carter is seeking "a consensus for a standby (gasoline) rationing plan" to replace the administration proposal rejected by the House earlier this year.

Asked why the president canceled the energy speech and called the Camp David summit, Mondale said that when the prsident reviewed the speech drafts he concluded that "the nature of the required further consideration.

"What was important was not when the speech was given but what was said," . "He wanted to draw on the best minds in the country."

Another official, who downplayed the prospect of wholesale changes in the White House staff and in the Cabinet as a result of the Camp David meetings, said Carter hopes to be able to forge broader national support for his domestic policies through the unusual and highly publicized sessions at the president retreat.

"The problem, not just of this administration but of previous addministrations, is achieving a consensus for these policies," said the White House official. "One thing we are talking about is establishing the beginning of a process that will be required to do that."

The official added: "The governors, more than any other elected officials, sympathize and empathize with this problem that the president faces.And they said they are ready to take a more active role in helping achieve that consensus."

Some of the governors who spent Friday night at Camp David predicted that Carter soon will issue a series of executive orders and ligislative recommendations aimded at ending "the stranglehold" froeign oil producers have on the United States.

They also predicted that the president may order some some "hihg-level personnel changes," nothing that Energy Secretary Schlesinger came under heavy fire during their meetings with the president.

Generally, the govenors said they left Campp David in an optimistic mood. They said greater accountabliity by the major oil companies was a major topic of their discussions, and that Carter once again firmly ruled out mandatory wage and price controls as a means to deal with inflation.

"I understand that this is a meeting that has considerable anxiety throughout the nation," said Gov. Otis Bowen of Indaina, the lone Republican among the eight governors who met with Carter. "But I also feel that if the president feels the need for reevaluation of all the things that are causing our energy and inflation problems before he makes a major statement on it, that we should afford him that luxury of the time that it takes to do this and get the imput from amny, many people."

The Carter aides who remained at Camp David last night were White House polictical adviser Hamiulton Jordan, press secretary Jody Powell, communications adviser Gerald Rafshoon, pollster Patrick Cadell and Charles H. Kirbo, the president's longtime friend and adviser from Altanta.

They were joined briefly yeaterday by budget director James T. MclIntre, who later flew to Louisville with Mondale, Mrs. Carter and several other White House aides.