The Senate approved an export-control bill yesterday that sets tight restrictions on the sale of Alaska oil and emphasizes Defense Department power over strategic exports to communist countries.

The Senate sent the bill to the House on a vote of 74 to 3.

The bill would prohibit export of Alaska oil unless the United States was guaranteed an equal amount of foreign oil and significant savings to U.S. consumers at the gas pump.

The president also would have to determine that export of Alaska oil was in the national interest, and exports could be terminated if U.S. imports were interrupted, according to the bill.

Donald W. Riegle Jr. (D-Mich.), sponsor of the Alaska restrictions, said they were needed to protect national security and avoid increased dependence on foreign oil.

A West Coast glut caused by a shortage of refinery capacity in California is forcing transport of the Alaskan oil 6,000 miles through the Panama Canal to reach other parts of the United States.

To alleviate the problem, industry officials have suggested importing nearby Mexican oil, which would be replaced by oil from Japan, which turn would be replaced by exported Alaskan oil. The system should result in savings in transportation costs.

The current Export Administration Act of 1969 expires Sept. 30.

Henry Jackson (D-Wash.) introduced more than a dozen amendments, mainly to tighten controls over selling U.S technology to potential enemies, but was forced to bow to compromises offered by Adlai Stevenson (D-Ill.).

One amendment sought to switch from the Secretary of Commerce to the Secretary of Defense the finall decisions on allowing exports of inndustrial plants or other technology that might directly or indirectly help the Soviet military system.

Stevenson persuaded Jackson to agree to a compromise that would merely give more emphasis to an advisory role the defense secretary now has. Other Jackson strictures were modified by similar agreements.

Several Jackson proposals were adopted without compromise, however. He was backed by a board coalition of conservatives and moderates, Democrats and Republicans. Stevenson operated a much smaller "coalition" that consisted chiefly of himself and John Heinz (R-Pa.).

Edmund Muskie (D-Maine) was rebuffed, 38 to 46, in an effort to block exports of hides used for shoe leather during a current worldwide leather shortage.

Muskie said the cattle industry is falling short of domestic demand, other producing nations refuse to export, and the tanning and shoemaking industries with 400,000 employes are facing disaster.

But Muskie and others from manufacturing state were outvoted by lawmakers from cattle country.