India yesterday expressed deep concern over the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan and reports that the United States would speed up delivery of arms and military equipment to Pakistan, its traditional military rival.

The large-scale Soviet action also drew a strong protest from Yugoslavia, which has long maintained its right to a policy independent of Moscow, and a further warning from China that the move "poses a threat to China's security."

In New Delhi, American Ambassador Robert Goheen was called to the External Affairs Ministry and told of India's grave concern following reports about the arms deliveries to Pakistan.

Goheen was summoned after he had delivered a letter from President Carter to Prime Minister Charan Singh's residence. The contents of the letter were not disclosed, but an official spokesman said it dealt with the situation in Afghanistan "and related matters."

A senior ministry offical told the ambassador that "the reported unwarranted induction of arms into Pakistan" would only exacerbate the situation in the region, the spokesman said.

Singh himself called Soviet Ambassador Yli Vorontsov to his residence and "expressed India's deep concern at the substantial involvement of Soviet military forces in Afghanistan," an offical spokesman said. Singh also expressed concern for the stability of the region.

Meanwhile, in a statement issued yesterday by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Yugoslavia expressed its "surprise" at the Soviet intervention and its "deep concern over the serious consequences" for the region and "international relations as a whole." The statement cited "the inadmissiblity of any form of foreign intervention or of the imposition of alien will upon sovereign states."

Romania echoed its earlier disapproval in a New Year's message from President Nicolae Ceaucescu in which he called for "renunciation of the policy of force and interference in the internal affairs of other states."

And the Chinese Foreign Ministry called in the Soviet ambassador in Peking to demand a withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, which shares a border of about 50 miles with China.