Most shops here reopened today and government offices appeared to be working normally after a six-day strike in protest against the Soviet military presence in Afghanistan.

Soviet and Afghan troops and armored vehicles now have been largely withdrawn from the city center in an apparent effort to calm tensions inflamed by the violent repression of demonstrations a week ago.

However, authorities reportedly were bracing themselves for possible new and anti-Soviet demonstrations Friday, when worshipers emerge from Moslem sabbath prayers in Kabul's mosques.

Mass anti-Soviet protests, the first in Kabul since Moscow installed a puppet government here in a Dec. 27 coup, erupted last Friday, a day after merchants declared a general strike.

More than 300 Afghan civilians were reported killed when Soviet and Afghan troops, some of them firing machine guns from tanks and armored personnel carriers, tried to stop the protests.

Since then, armed members of the ruling People's Democratic Party have been posted in the streets, keeping a vigil against any new outbursts of rebellion in the capital.

Meanwhile, there have been conflicting reports about executions by the government of Afghan Moslem organizers of the protests. Some opponents of the government claimed that dozens, possibly hundreds, of Afghans have been executed in the past week. But reliable Western diplomats and independent Afghan sources said there were no indications yet that any such summary executions had occurred.

Some foreign residents also said they had been told that as many as 100 Soviet soldiers died when insurgents set five armored personnel carriers and a tank on fire with molotov cocktails. There was no evidence to back those reports.

The official Radio Afghanistan, meanwhile, appealed to the country's mainly rural population to remain in outlying areas and till their land. The appeal, unusually conciliatory in tone and lacking the government's normal communist jargon, was interpreted as an attempt to undercut rebel recruitment and promote economic activity.

The broadcast offered peasants new farming tools, fertilizers and liberal loans to work their land this spring, when the warmer weather usually generates increased activity by Afghanistan's Moslem anticommunist rebels.