Sen. Edward M. Kennedy has proposed a detailed urban policy that calls for increased federal financial aid to cities -- a position directly contrary to President Carter's recent proposals to cut federal urban spending.

In a policy statement released Wednesday, as Kennedy was campaigning for next week's presidential primary election here, the candidate said he would continue federal revenue sharing and "countercyclical" grants -- programs Carter seems likely to cut -- and would put into effect one of Carter's 1976 campaign proposals: a federal takeover of urban welfare costs.

At the heart of Kennedy's proposals, the statement said, is his belief that the financial soundness of cities should be "a national, not just a local, concern." Kennedy said the financial burdens cities face in such areas as transit, welfare, and public health should be allocated among all taxpayers, as are the costs of other "national concerns," such as defense.

Carter said last week that many federal aid programs would be cut as part of his new drive to reduce spending.

To offset negative reaction to those cuts, however, the White House subsequently said it would work for legislation to provide more than $100 million to New York and other troubled cities.

Kennedy's program for the cities calls for altering federal policies to stop the flight of individual, commercial and corporate taxpayers from big cities.

His policy statement said that national urban policy should reflect six basic principles: "helping people;" "equity . . . regardless of race, sex, religion, or national origin;" development of neighborhoods; specialized programs to deal with cities individually rather than through broad formulas; preservation of existing structures as opposed to big renewal programs, and "partnership" among local, state and federal governments.