The Supreme Court justices yesterday filed personal financial disclosure statements for 1979 showing all but three of the nine to be considerably poorer than most of the lawyers who argue before them.

Only Chief Justice Warren E. Burger and Associate Justices Potter Stewart and Lewis F. Powell Jr. reported any significant wealth in addition to their salaries.

None of the nine listed substantial changes in their financial status since the previous year's disclosure statements were filed. The forms, required by the Ethics in Government Act, provide only ranges of income and holdings rather than figures.

Burger reported investment income of between $10,000 and $34,000 in 1979. His holdings, valued at between $800,000 and $1.4 million, included a major investment in Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. and land in Minnesota and Virginia.

Stewart reported investment income of between $100,000 and $239,000. His reported holdings in trusts, stocks and bonds totaled between $675,000 and $1.5 million. His family's largest, holding was a trust set by his wife's parents; its sole investment was stock in Wilmar Corp.

Powell reported between $120,000 and $266,000 in investment income and between $1.8 million and $3.8 million in holdings, most in trusts.

The six other justices reported relatively little wealth beyond their salaries of $72,000. Burger, as chief justice, is paid $75,000.