Independent presidential candidiate John Anderson wound up his five-nation Middle East and European tour here today by hinting at the foreign policy principles he will spell out in a series of speeches in the United States later in the campaign.

In addition to staunchly defending his controversial support for most of Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin's hard-line bargaining position in the Middle East peace negotiations, Anderson staked out these positions in a foreign policy speech and answers to questions by British members of Parliament, foreign policy experts and journalists:

The United States should reassert its leadership of the Western alliance by consulting more closely with its allies, building up its nonnuclear military forces and regenerating its economy.

Arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union should be resumed and the SALT II treaty ratified, "no matter what we think of what the Soviet Union has done in Afghanistan." Anderson said he found wide agreement among the European leaders he had met with this position.

U.S. plans for protecting the security of Western oil supplies in the Persian Gulf should be supported by the allies, but it was tactically wrong for President Carter to "unilaterally" declare a "Carter Doctrine" for the region without sufficient allied consultation or backing.

Americans should provide more foreign aid and other assistance to poor and developing countries both to alleviate suffering and to avert potential global disorder.

The United States should try to join Latin American nations in the Organization of American States to "quarantine" the "infection" of possible Cuban-inspired subversion there, but should not arbitrarily deny aid to left-wing revolutionary governments because some may be responsive to internal demands for change.

Political and economic pressure should be maintained on the government of South Africa to force it "to dismantle its cruel and inhumane program of apartheid."

While Anderson was critical more of the execution than the content of the Carter administration's foreign policy, he warned the allies that "if [Ronald] Reagan and [George] Bush are elected, we are in a new arms race. I think you can forget about SALT II, for instance, if Reagan becomes president."

Arguing that Europeans would be wrong if they believed "the initial impression being conveyed that Bush is a moderate," Anderson said at a press conference today that Reagan's choice for vice presidient "accepts the platform that I think puts the Republican Party outside the mainstream of American opinion."

Anderson argued that "the Republican platform demonstrates that Reagan and his lieutenants have been taken over completely by the right wing of his party. I will not allow him to paper over that."

This was clearly aimed at the many American reporters at the well-attended tour-ending press conference here today. Anderson leaves for Washington Friday afternoon.

While Anderson's visit elicited relatively little public attention here, he drew large numbers of interested members of Parliament, foreign policy experts and journalists to meetings arranged with him. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her foreign secretary, Lord Carrington, also met separately with Anderson this morning for what were described as wide-ranging discussions of world affairs.

In a mixed reception to his views and their presentation, many members of Parliament and British journalists said they were impressed by his frankness and knowledge in discussing a wide range of subjects even if they did not agree with everything he said.

Facing numerous, sometimes hostile questions at all these meetings and today's press conference about his views on the Middle East, Anderson reiterated his position that Jerusalem should eventually be the capital of Israel and that the Palestine Liberation Organization should not be invited to join Middle East peace negotiations until it renounces terrorism and accepts Israel's right to exist.

He said he also believed "the Palestinians' rights" and their plight as refugees should be addressed in "any lasting overall settlement."

Pointing out that his foreign experience also included several trips to China and Japan plus his experience as a former U.S. Foreign Service officer, Anderson said after he returned to the United States he would "sit down and try to distill out of my talks with the leaders of the five countries I've visited the principles I will lay down in a series of foreign policy speeches in the months ahead."