Turkey's neo-fascist leader, considered the greatest potential threat to the new ruling military junta, gave himself up today as the country's armed forces extended their control over Turkish political life.

As part of its consolidation the military removed a number of mayors, closed political party offices and arrested thousands of Turkes, including suspected extremists, labor union officials, students and intellectuals.

Chief among those detained today was Col. Alparsian Turkes, the only major politician to have escaped arrest Friday's coup. He was sent to an Aegean island after giving himself up to the armed forces.

Turkes, the leader of many of the right-winged comandos responsible for the violence that triggered the coup, was considered the one politician capable of rallying armed opposition to the government.

Turkes' surrender came as the fiveman junta headed by Chief of Staff Gen. Kenan Evran indicated that its rule would last at least through the next year if not longer.

Not only did Gen. Evren assume the title of chief of state in signing the flow of communiques to the nation broadcast by radio and television, but the junta suspended national elections scheduled for next spring -- an act that doomed hopes for a quick return to parliamentary democracy in Turkey.

In the country at large, at least one-third of the nation's mayors, including those of Istanbul and Jzmir, were removed from their posts on various charges ranging from poor administrative performance to suspicious politics and corruption. The military officially confirmed that 96 members of parliament also have been detained.

To ensure their control of the national radio and television, the junta also appointed a fellow military officer, Maj. Gen. Servet Bilgi, to run the state network.

The military government also banned all strikes and employer lockouts and ordered striking workers to return to work by Monday morning.

The offices of the country's political parties were sealed by the Army while their party signs and symbols were taken off their headquarters buildings. People around the country, in cities and villages, were urged to join the Army in painting over the inflammatory political graffiti of the left and the right on buildings and fences.

The capture of Turkes, however, was the armed forces' most noticeable success of the day.

Turkes, a 63-year-old-retired colonel who had been cashiered for 'authoritirian" tendencies from the 1960 military junta that toppled and then executed prime minister Adnan Menderes, had eluded military policemen who came to his home in Ankara before dawn on Friday to arrest him. He had fled after being tipped off about the impending coup by a sympathizer in the Army.

Saturday the armed forces junta issued an ultimatum to Turkes to give himself up by 1 p.m. Sunday or face later prosecution on charges of defiance of martial law regulations, in force since the coup in all of Turkey's 67 provinces.

At 6 a.m. this morning, Turkes telephoned the military headquarters in Ankara and told the authorities that he could be reached at his son's house in a suburb of Ankara. He was immediately whisked to the airport, flown to Izmir, then taken by boat to the Aegean island of Uzunada where he was put under "protective custody" at a Turkish naval base.

Turkes' sometimes political ally, Necmettin Erbakan, the leader of the Moslem revivalist National Salvation Party, is also being held on the island. Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel and opposition leader Bulent Heavit are both in custody at an Army base at Gallipoli on the Dardanelles Straits.

The political leaders and the 96 parliamentarians that the government has now officially admitted are being detained represent only a fraction of the arrests around the country in the first three days of Army rule.

While the government has so far refrained from giving any numbers of the total arrests, informed sources here in Istanbul say that they were in the thousands.

In Istanbul alone the authorities have detained scores of persons. The head of the city's bar association, Orhap Apaydin, was reported under house arrest, while the political cartoonist of the centrist newspaper Milliyet, Turhan Selcuk, and a prominent writer, Demirtas Ceyhun, were among those detained in a military camp outside the city.

Martial law authorities in Istanbul also announced that many officials of both extreme rightist and extreme leftist labor unions have gone underground to escape detention. The authorities issued an ultimatum to them to turn themselves in to the Army before Tuesday or face prosecution.

In the streets, however, the Army continued to show as low a profile as possible. Traffic and pedestrians continued to be stopped selectively at the hundreds of roadblocks around the city. Turks were frisked by soldiers, their identities checked and vehicles searched for arms.

While the government crackdown so far has been accepted with general resignation by most of the populace, in Adana today an Army captain was killed in the first shootout with terrorists since the military coup was declared. It was the only violent incident reported so far.