the deadlocked Egyptian-Israeli negotiations on Palestinian autonomy will resume here today, but little immediate or dramatic progress is expected because of the uncertainties of the Persian Gulf war and the U.S. presidential campaign.

The two-day round of U.S.-mediated talks will aim at trying to make progress on a self-government formula for the Palestinian inhabitants of Israeli-occupied territories and at preparations for the summit meeting to be held here between President Carter, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin after the U.S. election on Nov. 4.

Resumption of the negotiations, which broke down during the summer, represents a limited triumph for Carter since it allows him to rebut charges that his greatest foreign policy achievement -- the Camp David formula for Mideast peace -- has reached the end of its usefulness.

That is especially important to the president as he seeks to hold the votes of restive American Jewish voters suspicious of his intentions toward Israel. Carter's problems with American Jews were underscored yesterday when orthodox Jews in New York City heckled him loudly as he tried to assure them that his support of Israel will remain constant if he is reelected.

But, while resuming the talks might help Carter's campaign, there is little expectation in diplomatic circles that they will produce any sudden or concrete results.

Sadat is known to feel that the many unresolved issues impeding progress can be thrashed out only at a summit. As a result, the Egyptians believe that progress can come only after it is clear whether Carter or Republican candidate Ronald Reagan will be the next president and be in a position to put pressure on Israel to be more cooperative.

On the other side, the Israelis have been disturbed greatly by the Iraq-Iran war and the possibility that it could spread to involve Israel's eastern Arab neighbors, Jordan and Syria. At a time when the Begin government is expressing concern about possible military threats from the east, the Israelis are expected to be exceedingly cautious about making any negotiating concessions that would weaken their hold over the occupied West Bank adjoining Jordan and Syria.

The talks will have a ceremonial opening this morning at Blair House and then move into three-way bargaining under the mediation of Carter's special Mideast envoy, Sol M. Linowitz. Heading the delegations of the other two countries are Egyptian Foreign Minister Kamal Hassan Ali and Israeli Interior Minister Yosef Burg.