This is the alignment of Senate committee chairmanships that can be expected if the normal senority procedures are followed, and the senators in question are opt for what are considered the most prestigious chairmanships they can get.One committee, Rules, is not included because it is not clear who its likely chairman might be. Armed Services

John G. Tower (R-Tex.), 55, has been a leading opponent of the Carter administration's strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II) with the Soviet Union. He has pushed for increased military spending, and is regarded as a hawk on defense-related matters.

When the Soviets engineered the overthrow of Afghan President Hafizullah Amin last December, Tower argued that the Soviet actions "removed any basis for trust or confidence that the Soviet Union would be bound by any future" SALT agreement. He has not moderated his views since and is expected to be a major factor in any Reagan administration attempt to fashion a tougher arms limitation agreement with Moscow.

Tower has been in the Senate since 1961. Foreign Relations

Sen. Charles Percy, 61, a liberal-leaning Republican from Illinois, was a dove on the Vietnam war. He supported the Panama Canal Treaties, was sympathetic to SALT II and has been criticized by conservatives as too tolerant of Soviet agression. On the other hand, he supported the conservative Kemp-Roth tax proposal -- a reflection of his businessman past as the young president of Bell & Howell.

Percy was elected to the Senate in 1966. His name has been mentioned as a possible presidential candidate from time to time since the 1960s, but he never actually ran, and, in fact, very nearly lost his Senate seat in a close race in 1978.

In 1977, he attracted attention to committee hearings into Carter aide Bert Lance's affairs, when he became the target of attacks by some administration staffers. Banking

Jake Garn (R-Utah), 48, is a former mayor of Salt Lake City who is known for his distrust of federally funded social programs. He is another of the conservative activists, dubbed the "new right," who are expected to spend their energies in the next Congress whittling down federal spending.

But on spending for defense, Garn is expected to be more generous.According to the Almanac of American Politics, Garn "believes that the nation is not doing enough in the world to protect its interests" militarily.

Garn was elected to the Senate in 1974 by a narrow margin. But, according to the almanac, he has grown in prestige and is now regarded as the "intellectual leader" of his conservative Rocky Mountain state colleagues. Finance

Sen. Bob Dole, 57, is best known nationally for his aggressive, often abrasive, partisanship as Gerald Ford's running mate in the 1976 campaign, and before that for his staunch defenses of Richard Nixon's policies and reputation as Watergate unfolded. But he also has proved himself a studious and imaginative lawmaker and can be expected to take the lead as a champion of Republican tax measures. He has supported the controversial Kemp-Roth tax cut proposal.

A Midwestern conservative noted for his dry wit, Dole was first elected to the House in 1960 and to the Senate in 1968. Nixon made him Republican national chairman in 1971. He ran briefly for president in the 1980 campaign. n Agriculture

Jesse A. Helms, 59, (R-N.C.) is a conservative activist from Raleigh, N.C., who came to the Senate in 1972. During his tenure there, he became known as a hardliner on limiting federal spending for domestic social programs like the food stamps operation, which falls under his committee's jurisdiction.

Helms is a former Raleigh, N.C., TV commentator and a vice president of that area's Tobacco Radio Network. Because of his close association with the North Carolina tobacco industry, he is expected to use his new Senate position to help defend the interests of that state's tobacco industry.

Still, among the many North Carolina farmers who listened to his numerous broadcasts, Helms is regarded as a man of the people. Much of Helms' financial support in his Senate races came from individual citizens who agree with his conservative views. Budget

Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), 48, is a onetime Albuquerque mayor who, like some of his Republican colleagues, believes in holding down spending for domestic programs. But Domenici has sometimes gone his fellows one step better in cost-cutting.

Last year, for example, he caused a minor political storm by fussing publicly about the White House's acceptance of 28 free tickets to the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts -- a federally supported institution.

However, Domenici, his state's senior senator, has demonstrated as much talent in raising public revenues as he has in saving them. In the 95th Congress, for instance, he pushed through a bill placing tolls on barge traffic passing through waterways built and maintained at federal expense. Domenici was first elected to the Senate in 1972. Labor

Sen. Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah), 46, is the man organized labor loves to hate. In fact, in an attempt last month to scare its members to the polls to vote, the Public Employes Department of the AFL-CIO ran a fake headline that read: "Republicans Take Over Senate; Hatch Chairs Labor Committee."

Now that the "horror headline" joke has become a reality, labor leaders are squirming in anticipation of Hatch's ascendancy to the Labor Committee chairmanship.

The reason is that Hatch, a passionate conservative, was a major force in defeating the labor law legislation proposed by the Carter administration and supported by the AFL-CIO.Hatch, now the ranking minority member of the Labor Committee, was first elected to the Senate in 1976. Commerce

Bob Packwood (R-Ore.), 48, supported the Carter administration's successful drive to deregulate the trucking industry.

Packwood argued that deregulation would make the trucking industry more competitive and, therefore, less inflationary.Ironically, the measure was opposed by the Teamsters Union, whose support of President-elect Ronald Reagan helped overturn the Democratic majority in the Senate -- giving Packwood a shot at the Commerce Committee chairmanship.

Packwood, Oregon's junior senator, is regarded as a Republican liberal. He has, despite some Teamster disgruntlement over his deregulation vote, developed a senatorial record acceptable to many labor leaders.

He was first elected to the Senate in 1968. Judiciary

Sen. Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.), 77, rose to early political prominence by fighting attempts to use the judiciary to advance the cause of civil rights.

But since those days, the Democrat-turned-Dixiecrat-turned-Republican has abandoned his anti-civil rights position, largely because of the emergence of black voters in the South.

Still, Thurmond, who was elected governor of South Carolina in 1946 on a segregationist platform, is regarded as a conservative -- albeit one with proven adeptness at bending with the political winds.

Thurmond was first elected to the Senate in 1956 as a Democrat. But, during the controversy surrounding the Civil Rights Act approved in 1964, he changed his party registration to Republican. Appropriations

Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.), considered something of a political prodigy, won his first elective office at age 28 when he was sent to the Oregon state legislature. Six years later, he became a governor, and, in 1966, he won his first term in the U.S. Senate.

Hatfield is a regarded as a deeply religious man, but not one who necessarily fits the mold of the conservative Moral Majority movement. For example, he was a staunch opponent of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war.

On monetary matters, according to the Almanac of American Politics-1980, Hatfield has developed the reputation of a "middle of the roader -- neither a big spender, nor a pinny pincher."

In the Senate, he has served as the ranking minority member of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee, and the second-ranking Republican on Appropriations behind Sen. Milton R. Young (R-S.D.), 80, who is heading for retirement. Hatfield has the option of chairing the Energy panel, but is expected to take the more influential Appropriations post. Energy and Resources

Sen. James McClure (R-Idaho), 55, is a Rocky Mountain conservative who has opposed measures to ban phosphate detergents in the Great Lakes area and has opposed banning high emission cars in areas like his own state. He strongly supports nuclear power. He favors deregulation and minimum restraint on private enterprise in energy matters. In 1978, he provided a crucial vote in favor of compromise on President Carter's energy bill in exchange for support of a $417 million energy research project in his state.

A former prosecuting attorney in Payette County, Idaho, McClure was first elected to the House in 1966 and won his seat in the Senate in 1972. Governmental Affairs

Sen. William V. Roth Jr., 59, Republican of Delaware, is most widely known as cosponsor of the controversial Kemp-Roth tax cut measure to cut federal income taxes by 30 percent over three years. The proposal subsequently was embraced by the Republican Party and President-elect Ronald Reagan. Because of that, and such other note-worthy legislation as the tuition tax credit to offset the cost to parents of college for their children, he has emerged since 1977 as something of a force on behalf of the country's embattled middle class.

Roth was first elected to the House in 1966 and became a senator in 1970. Environment

Robert Theodore Stafford, 67, from Rutland, Vt., has a reputation as a moderate Republican earnest and inoffensive enough to all sides that he escaped serious challenges for most of his long career. He comes from a once-rural very Republican state that has been undergoing an identity crisis brought on by rapid growth and prosperity. Vermont's senior public official, he has held statewide elective office since 1954.

Stafford has supported the Panama Canal treaties, waterway user fees, the deregulation of natural gas, hospital cost containment and medically necessary abortions, but opposed the Kemp-Roth tax cut measure, pardons for draft resisters and wheat price supports. Veterans' Affairs

Alan K. Simpson (R-Wyo.), 49, is a little-known conservative politician from northern Wyoming. His relative anonymity could be enhanced by service as chairman of one of the Senate's smallest, most specialized committees.

Simpson was elected to the Senate in 1978 to succeed Clifford Hansen, also a Republican, who declined to seek a third term that most observers said he could have won easily.

Simpson, a former state legislator, has thus not had the chance to develop much of a track record in the Senate, where he started out as a member of the Environment and Judiciary committees.

Simpson is a lawyer who once served as Cody, Wyo., city attorney and who rose in the state legislature to become speaker pro tem of the Wyoming House. r