President-elect Ronald Reagan's advisers have divided the government into five broad categories, and are about to name coordinators to oversee the transfer of power in each, aides said yesterday. These coordinators will provide liasion between the Reagan hierarchy and small working teams to be placed in coming days in all departments and agencies in the executive branch.

Sources in the Reagan camp say that Elizabeth Dole, a former Federal Trade commissioner and the wife of Sen. Bob Dole (R-Kan.), will be coordinator for "human resources." Loren Smith, as associate professor of constitutional law at Widner University and the chief house counsel of the Reagan campaign committee, will coordinate teams working on federal legal and regulatory agencies.

Richard M. Fairbanks, a former associate director of the domestic council in the Nixon White House, will be coordinator for resources and development, an area that encompasses the departments of Energy, Agriculture and Interior. Economic affairs, both domestic and international, will be coordinated by Stanton D. Anderson, a Washington lawyer who is a deputy to Reagan political aide William E. Timmons. David Abshire, former assistant secretary of state during the Nixon administration, will coordinate efforts of three teams in the national security area at the departments of State and Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency.

Though a number of the "captains" of the special working teams that will actually move into these departments have not yet been named, sources say that two key appointments in the national security area are firm.

William Van Cleave, a former Pentagon official who served as Reagan's senior defense adviser during the campaign, will head the team moving into the Pentagon.

Robert G. Neumann, former ambassador to Afghanistan and Jordan and currently at Georgetown University's Center for Strategic and International Studies, will head the State Department working team.

Though no captain has been named for the CIA team, sources say Reagan campaign director William J. Casey is certain to play a major role in the working of this group. Casey, who was a European intelligence specialist in the World WAR II Office of Strategic Services, is also said to be a leading possibility for CIA director in the new administration.

Also in the national security pictures as it shapes up is Richard V. Allen. Numerous Reagan advisers say they believe that the longtime senior foreign policy adviser to the president-elect will be named to the key post of national security adviser in the White House, although no final decision has been made. That post is currently held by Zbigniew Brzezinski and was formerly held by Henry A. Kissinger.

Allen resigned in the final days of the campaign after a newspaper article suggested that he had used past government positions for private gain. But Reagan said recently that those allegations had been looked into, by his own staff and other newspapers, and no evidence of wrongdoing has been found. At the same time, Reagan gave a strong vote of confidence to Allen.

Sources say that the official public announcement of the five coordinating positions is expected this week. These officials stress that the five appointments do not mean that those individuals will necessarily wind up with administration positions after the Jan. 20 inauguration.

The role of these coordinators, as explained by Reagan's aides, will basically be to serve as a funnel, through which detailed information developed by the working teams will be passed on to a newly created interim office of executive branch management. That office is to be run by Timmons, who is also deputy director of the top-level transition team named by Reagan on Nov. 6, and it will play the central role in managing the changing of the guard.

In terms of the practical effect on the bureaucracy, however, the key role is apt to be played by the small working teams that go into each department. Aside from a team captain, sources say, each will have specialists on budgetary affairs, policy, personnel and congressional relations.

These teams will not be in a position to implement any changes before the new administration comes into office nor are they meant to develop candidates for top-level jobs in the new administration. Rather, officials say, they will identify positions that need to be filled and perhaps identify people who need to be moved out of existing jobs because of policy differences.

These teams will look at the bureaucratic structure to see what, if anything, can and should be changed. They are supposed to find out what decisions the Carter administration will be making in its final weeks and where various agencies are in the preparation of the next federal budget for fiscal 1982.

Ultimately, officials say, these teams will be drafting position papers that are meant to define issues and problems that the incoming administration may soon be confronted with, to outline the principal policies that have been followed in the departments and to lay out options for future decisions. The idea, if it works properly, is to allow the new administration to "hit the ground running," as Reagan officials describe it.