Vice President-elect George Bush reached back into his days as intelligence chief and named his former CIA sidekick, retired Adm. Daniel J. Murphy, as his chief of staff when the Reagan administration takes over in January.

Murphy, who was chief deputy when Bush served as CIA director and who is now chief intelligence aide to Defense Secretary Harold Brown, said he will leave his Pentagon job in a week or so to direct the Bush transition operation and build the rest of the vice presidential staff.

Two other slots on the Bush staff were filled yesterday. Pete Teeley, who has been Bush's campaign press secretary since April 1979, will stay on in that job, Bush said, and Jenifer A. Fitzgerald, Bush's executive secretary at the CIA and during his tenure as U.S. envoy to China, will be his appointments secretary.

Murphy, 58, a University of Maryland graduate, has worked in the Pentagon for Brown, a Democrat, as well as for two Republican secretaries of defense. Melvin R. Laird and Elliot L. Richardson. Murphy describes himself as "purely apolitical," and says Bush's staff will have to "look for political wisdom someplace else."

He said he came into Bush's ken in 1975 through Donald Rumsfeld, an associate of Bush in the moderate wing of the Republican Party. Murphy met Rumsfeld in Europe in the early 1970s, when Murphy was commander of the 6th Fleet and Rumsfeld was the U.S. ambassador to NATO.

When Bush became CIA director in 1976, he was looking for a knowledgeable deputy, and Rumsfeld recommended Murphy.

As Bush's deputy, Murphy earned a reputation as a strong leader who can withstand bureaucratic and political pressures. His reputation as a tough manager -- and his equality in military rank to the current CIA director, Adm. Stansfield Turner -- reportedly prompted Brown early in the Carter administration to name Murphy his deputy for intelligence.

Other transition appointments were largely on hold yesterday because of the holiday and because several top aides to President-elect Ronald Reagan were traveling from Los Angeles to Washington.But there were these developments:

Attorney Laurence Silberman, a veteran of the last two Republican adminstrations who is a vice president of California's Crocker National Bank, reportedly was chosen to head the Reagan transition team at the CIA. b

Silberman, who served in the Labor and Justice departments under president Nixon and Ford, and was Ford's ambassador to Yugoslavia, reportedly was asked to oversee the transition either at Justice or the CIA. It reportedly has not been decided whom to send to Justice.

Sen. Bob Dole of Kansas, a senior member of what will soon be the Republican majority on the Senate Agriculture Committee, said the new administration's secretary of agriculture should be a farmer. Dole had a few candidates in mind.

Dole said the successor to Bob Bergland, a diary farmer from Minesota, should be someone with "recent farming experience and not someone drawn from a big-business background or from a special-interest group -- someone who is not tried to one of the big farm groups." Two people who might fit that description, Dole said, are Minnesota Gov. Albert Quie and Illinois agriculture director John Block.

Dole noted that his description would rule out Clayton Yeutter, president of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and one of those most prominently mentioned as candidates for agriculture secretary.

Richard Viguerie, the directmail wizard and a leader of the "New Right" political movement, proposed that former Texas governor John B. Connally be nominated for secretary of state.

In an interview with The Baltimore Sun, Viguerie also complained that Reagan and his top aides are paying too much attention to moderates and Ford-Nixon appointees in building the transisition apparatus. "The transition appointments have angered us," he said. "There's not a hard-core conservative in the lot . . . Was it the Ford-Kissinger-Rockefeeler wing of the party that has been promoting Reagan for 16 years?"

On the outgoing side of the transition, President Carter's press secretary, Jody Powell, promised that Carter will include no "moustraps" in the fiscal 1982 budget he hands over to Reagan in January.

Carter's top domestic adviser, Stuart Eizenstat, is preparing a list of "executive-type decisions" to be made by the Democrats before Reagan is inaugurated, Powell said.

The Heritage Foundation, which is acting as an unoffical think tank for the Reagan transition team, proposed a three-step phaseout of the Department of Energy that would apparently spare many of the its functions but give them to other agencies. When this had been done -- by January 1982, according to the study -- the department would be downgraded below Cabinet status but would continue to exist, primarily as a coordinating point for energy research and development.

The Environmental Protection Agency, under the Heritage blueprint, would turn over most of its standard-setting authority to the states. The federal agency's major role would be to umpire disputes between states.