Walter E. Fauntroy, the District's non-voting delegate to Congress, has been elected chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus for the new legislative session that begins in January.

Fauntroy was chosen Wednesday on Capitol Hill by unanimous vote of the 18 blacks who were elected to serve in the 97th Congress.

He was reported last night in Alabama on a speaking engagement, and unavailable for comment.

Fauntroy, 47, who has served as the city's first and only delegate since being elected March 23, 1971, succeeds Rep. Cardiss Collins (D-Ill.), who headed the 10-year-old caucus in the current Congress.

An aide to Fauntroy said in an interview last night that the caucus, which will be composed exclusively of Democrats, will, among other aims, try to pursue goals it may share with the new Republican administration of Ronald Reagan.

As an example, the aide noted that the president-elect has expressed interest in creating jobs, and the aide said the caucus shares that goal.

The aide also noted that in addition to its unprecedented size, the caucus should have enhanced authority in the new Congress because four of its members will chair committees. There are 16 members of the caucus in the present House of Representatives.

Fauntroy, who graduated from Dunbar High School here and Virginia Union University, holds a divinity degree from Yale, and has been pastor since 1958 of the New Bethel Baptist Church here. He was director of the Washington Bureau of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from 1960 to 1971 and was vice chairman of the D.C. City Council from 1967 to 1969.