The 17 White House national security wiretaps began in May 1969 and continued until February 1971. Alexander M. Haig Jr., then a member of the National Security Council staff, provided the names of 12 of the people to be tapped, according to the FBI. It was Haig who read and evaluated the results of most of the taps -- largely personal information.
Over that time, thousands of individuals were overheard talking to the subjects of the taps. Among those tapped were White House, State and Defense officials and several well-known reporters. Here is a list of those tapped in the order in which the taps were placed, the duration of the tap and whether Haig was recorded by the FBI as the requestor:
Morton H. Halperin, an NSC staffer from January through September 1969 and later a consultant to Democratsic persidential candidate Edmund S. Muskie, was tapped from May 9, 1969, to Feb. 10, 1971. Haig supplied his name May 10, though Hoover is said to have begun the tap on his own after a phone call from the White House.
Daniel Davidson, an NSC staff member from January through May 1969 who Hoover demanded be fired, according to Haig, "based on the surveillance." His tap ran from May 12, 1969, to Sept. 15, 1969. Haig supplied his name to the FBI, though he maintains Hoover proposed it.
Col. Robert E. Pursley, then-Defense Secretary Melvin Laird's military assistant and a holdover from earlier administrations, was first tapped May 12, 1969, through May 27, 1969. In the wake of the Cambodian invasion, another tap went on on May 4, 1970, and remained until Feb. 10, 1971. In both cases, Haig supplied his name to the FBI.
Helmut Sonnenfeldt was an NSC Soviet specialist who had served in the State Department in the previous Democratic administration. He was tapped from May 12, 1969, through Feb. 10, 1971. Haig provided his name to the FBI. A renewed surveillance was at the request of H. R. Haldeman, then-chief of staff at the White House.
Richard L. Sneider was an NSC staff member on loan from the State Department who later became U.S. ambassador to Korea. He was tapped from May 20, 1969, to June 20, 1969. Haig provided his name to the FBI.
Richard M. Moose was an NSC staff member who had served in that position under a previous administration. He later became a key member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee staff and then assistant secretary of state for Africa under the Carter administration. Moose was tapped from May 20 to June 20, 1969. His name was provided to the FBI by Haig.
Henry Brandon was the London Sunday Times correspondent in Washington who was friendly with Henry Kissinger and according to Kissinger's testimony "was presented by FBI Director Hoover to the president as a man who had connections with an allied foreign intelligence service." The tap on Brandon lasted from May 29 to Feb. 10, 1971. Haig formally provided the name, although Kissinger has testified that Brandon also was tapped as a result of Hoovers's comments to Nixon.
Hedrick Smith, a reporter for the New York Times Washington bureau, was tapped from June 4, 1969, to Aug. 31, 1969. Kissinger requested the FBI tap.
John Sears was an assistant to White House counsel John Ehrlichman and later became the campaign manager for Ronald Reagan until he was fired last February. Sears was tapped from July 23, 1969, to Oct. 2, 1969, and was the subject of physical surveillance part of that time. Attorney General John Mitchell requested the tap on Sears.
William A. Safire was a White House speech-writer and is now a New York Times columnist. He was tapped from Aug. 4, 1969, to Sept. 15, 1969. ySafire also was overheard on taps of a newsman's phone-during which he was according to a House impeachment committee document, "reported only to have dealt with domestic speechs, papers dealing with economics . . . and the political philosophy of the administration." Haig requested the tap on Safire's phones.
Marvin Kalb was a reporter with CBS who is now with NBC. He was tapped from Sept. 10, 1969, through Nov. 4, 1969, at the request of Mitchell.
William Beecher was a reporter for the New York Times who is now with the Boston Globe. He was tapped from May 4, 1970, to Feb. 20, 1971. Haig provided his name to the Fbi.
Richard F. Pedersen was a counselor to the State Department during the Paris peace talks and later became U.S. ambassador to Hungary. Pedersen was tapped from May 4, 1970, to Feb. 10, 1971. Haig asked the FBI to tap his phones.
William H. Sullivan had been ambassador to Laos and was at the time deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs.Under President Carter, Sullivan served as U.S. ambassador to Iran. He was tapped from May 4, 1970, to Feb. 10, 1971.Haig requested the tap from the FBI.
Anthony Lake was an NSC staff specialist on Vietnam who later became head of the Policy and Planning Office of the State Department under the Carter administration. Lake was tapped from May 13, 1970, to Feb. 10, 1971. Haig requested the FBI institute the tap.
Winston Lord was a China specialist on the NSC staff who later became head of the Policy and Planning Office of the State Department under Kissinger. Lord was tapped from May 13, 1970, through Feb. 10, 1971. Haig requested that the FBI install the tap.
James W. McLane was a staff member of the domestic council with ties to such "liberal" Republicans as former Health, Education and Welfare secretary Robert Finch and his father-in-law Francis W. Sargent, former governor of Massachusetts. McLane was tapped from Dec. 12, 1970, to Jan. 27, 1971. at Haldeman's request.