One of the key challenges facing President Reagan the next four years will be to increase his level of support and confidence among the black population.

This will be no easy task in view of the fact that only one black in 10 voted for Reagan in the November presidential election, only 16 percent of blacks think Reagan will make a "great" or a "good" president compared with 43 percent of whites, and far fewer blacks (26 percent) than whites (48 percent) think Reagan will be able to reduce inflation. Similarly, fewer blacks (31 percent) than whites (49 percent) think he can reduce unemployment.

Not only is confidence in Reagan considerably lower among blacks than whites, but blacks regard their treatment in American society as needing a great deal of improvement.

For example, only 35 percent of blacks think blacks in their community are treated as well as whites whereas nearly twice the percentage of whites (67 percent) hold this view.

On a brighter note, the weight of opinion among blacks is that the quality of their life over the last 10 years has gotten better (54 percent) rather than worse (19 percent) or remainded the same (23 percent).

Whites overwhelmingly feel the situation for blacks has improved the last decade, with 80 percent now holding this view, close to the 75 percent figure recorded last May.