Women's organizations, upset that the casting office of the Reagan White House has so far picked so few women for leading roles, got at least a meaty supporting part yesterday when President Reagan appointed Annelise G. Anderson as associate director for economics and government in the Office of Management and Budget.

Anderson, a research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution who worked in Reagan's transition office, also is the wife of White House domestic affairs adviser Martin Anderson.

But women still went 1 for 6 in White House appointments yesterday. The other appointments:

David B. Swoap, who was California social walfare director when Reagan was governor and now legislative director for Sen. William L. Armstrong (R-Colo.), as undersecretary of the Health and Human services Department.

Thomas Weir Pauken, a Texas lawyer and unsuccessful congressional candidate, as Action director.

Marshall Brement, a kremlin expert and member of the National Secruity Council staff in the Carter administration, as deputy U.N. representative.

Elliott Abrams, a Washington lawyer and formerly special counsel to Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynighan (D.-N.Y.) and Henry M. Jackson (D-Wash.), as assistant secretary of state for international organizations.

Charles M. Lichenstein, a former vice president of the Public Broadcasting Service and a consultant whose clients have included the American Enterprise Institute, as an alternate representative to the United Nations.