Material deleted from a paragraph in a story on Uruguayanpo Material deleted from a paragraph in a story on Uruguayanpolitics Feb. 9 altered the intended meaning. The paragraph slitics Feb. 9 altered the intended meaning. The paragraph should have read: It seemed, in general, an auspicious time hould have read: It seemed, in general, an auspicious time to present the trappings of legitimacy in the military goverto present the trappings of legitimacy in the military governments of the southern cone. Argentina's military juntawas nments of the southern cone. Argentina's military juntawas selecting a new president, with much publicity about his "moselecting a new president, with much publicity about his "moderate" views and his willingness to begin talking to politiderate" views and his willingness to begin talking to political factions. Chilean President Augusto Pinochet had just wcal factions. Chilean President Augusto Pinochet had just won a plebiscite extending his presidency to the year 1988, won a plebiscite extending his presidency to the year 1988, with reappointment option that could conceivably keep him in ith reappointment option that could conceivably keep him in power almost to the end of the century. There had beenchargpower almost to the end of the century. There had beencharges of fraud in Chile, but it was thought by many that Pinoches of fraud in Chile, but it was thought by many that Pinochet would have won anyway, if by a smaller margin. et would have won anyway, if by a smaller margin.

The stunned silence that followed this country's rejection

The stunned silence that followed this country's rejection last November of a new constitution drawn up by its militarylast November of a new constitution drawn up by its military rulers still fills the marble hallways of Uruguayan officia rulers still fills the marble hallways of Uruguayan officialdom.

The president declines an interview, explaining throldom.

The president declines an interview, explaining through an intermediary that the government is "looking for asolugh an intermediary that the government is "looking for asolution," but that he has noting to say. The Navy commander fution," but that he has noting to say. The Navy commander finds it inconvenient to be interviewed at this time. The Arinds it inconvenient to be interviewed at this time. The Army commander, a black-haired man who smokes cigarettes and smy commander, a black-haired man who smokes cigarettes and smiles as he talks, explains that "work is being done to givemiles as he talks, explains that "work is being done to give continuity to the development process."

There have been no continuity to the development process."

There have been no public meetings, no approaches to the political parties, no public meetings, no approaches to the political parties, no official pronouncements as to what the government willdo no official pronouncements as to what the government willdo now that its proposed constitution -- an effusively advertisedw that its proposed constitution -- an effusively advertised document that would have guaranteed the military a permanen document that would have guaranteed the military a permanent and powerful role in Uruguayan politics -- has been soundlt and powerful role in Uruguayan politics -- has been soundly defeated.

"The results of the plebiscite really threw thy defeated.

"The results of the plebiscite really threw them for a loop," said one diplomatic observer. "It's obviousem for a loop," said one diplomatic observer. "It's obviously inconceivable that that kind of military mind would go inly inconceivable that that kind of military mind would go into battle without any battle plan for defeat, but this appeato battle without any battle plan for defeat, but this appears to be really what happened."

This month, the height of trs to be really what happened."

This month, the height of the Uruguayan summer, the most elated voices in Urugay are thhe Uruguayan summer, the most elated voices in Urugay are those the law has prohibited from speaking out. In the clandeose the law has prohibited from speaking out. In the clandestine meeting places of Uruguayan political parties -- cafesstine meeting places of Uruguayan political parties -- cafes, country bars and shaded apartments of men who usedto be se, country bars and shaded apartments of men who usedto be senators -- their faces still fill with pleasure as they tell nators -- their faces still fill with pleasure as they tell again the story of the political network that survived. Eigagain the story of the political network that survived. Eight years of hiding to gear up, fan out, and pass the word: "ht years of hiding to gear up, fan out, and pass the word: "No."

"It was a good training," said a former legislator whoNo."

"It was a good training," said a former legislator who is prohibited, under a five-year-old Uruguayan law, from wo is prohibited, under a five-year-old Uruguayan law, from working in or talking about politics. "A very good training irking in or talking about politics. "A very good training indeed. In one month, we realized we were fit."

Junta and gndeed. In one month, we realized we were fit."

Junta and goverment officials have must to decide now -- whether to appoverment officials have must to decide now -- whether to appoint a new president this fall, whether to reopendialogue wioint a new president this fall, whether to reopendialogue with the political parties they prohibited from activity eightth the political parties they prohibited from activity eight years ago, whether to respond in any way to thequietly grow years ago, whether to respond in any way to thequietly growing call for a constitutional assembly. The military itselfing call for a constitutional assembly. The military itself is split, according to observers, between commanders who wi is split, according to observers, between commanders who wish to try again for some electoral plan and commanders who tsh to try again for some electoral plan and commanders who take the election as a sign that they must simply tighten theake the election as a sign that they must simply tighten their grip on Uruguay.

There are those within the military, iir grip on Uruguay.

There are those within the military, including the Army commander and junta leader, Lt. Gen. Luis ncluding the Army commander and junta leader, Lt. Gen. Luis B. Queirolo, who have taken to explaining the plebiscite votB. Queirolo, who have taken to explaining the plebiscite vote this way: If you discount all the secret leftist sympathize this way: If you discount all the secret leftist sympathizers, who are suspect by definition, and if youinclude all thers, who are suspect by definition, and if youinclude all the people who voted noe because they liked things just the wae people who voted noe because they liked things just the way they were and had no use for a new constitution, the mility they were and had no use for a new constitution, the military was really not rejected by a Uruagyan majority at all. ary was really not rejected by a Uruagyan majority at all.

"If we had been rejected, I wouldn't be here," Quierolo sai

"If we had been rejected, I wouldn't be here," Quierolo said. "I'd be enjoying myself in my house."

The constitution d. "I'd be enjoying myself in my house."

The constitution was presented to Uruguay last year with an advertising campawas presented to Uruguay last year with an advertising campaign worthy of a new low-tar cigarette.Long before the docuign worthy of a new low-tar cigarette.Long before the document itself had been publicly released, theradio and televisment itself had been publicly released, theradio and television spots had begun. There was singing, to a bright, martiaion spots had begun. There was singing, to a bright, martial beat:

"Yes! For the nation! Yes!For grandness! Yes! l beat:

"Yes! For the nation! Yes! For grandness! Yes! For my Urguay!"

There were shots of careening gulls, of da For my Urguay!"

There were shots of careening gulls, of dams, of schoolchildren. A warm, deep voice would speak: "Whams, of schoolchildren. A warm, deep voice would speak: "What is a nation? A nation is much more than a map, and it doet is a nation? A nation is much more than a map, and it does not measure itself in kilometers. It is measured in the ws not measure itself in kilometers. It is measured in the work of its people. A nation is a way tocarry goods, to commork of its people. A nation is a way tocarry goods, to communicate, to grow closer to one another . . . Vote yes the 30unicate, to grow closer to one another . . . Vote yes the 30th of November. Say yes to progress, and to peace."

"It goth of November. Say yes to progress, and to peace."

"It got to the point where you were thinking, 'Yes! For the coffet to the point where you were thinking, 'Yes! For the coffee! Yes! For the eater!'" one Uruguayan said contemptuouslye! Yes! For the eater!'" one Uruguayan said contemptuously. "They thought they were selling Coca-Cola. They were at . "They thought they were selling Coca-Cola. They were at that level."

It seemed, in general, an auspicious time to pthat level."

It seemed, in general, an auspicious time to present the trappings of legitimacy inthe military governmentresent the trappings of legitimacy inthe military governments of the southern part of South America. lWith much publicits of the southern part of South America. lWith much publicity about his "moderate" views and hiswillingness to begin taly about his "moderate" views and hiswillingness to begin talking to political factions, President Augusto Pinochet of Chking to political factions, President Augusto Pinochet of Chile had just won a plebiscite extending his presidency to thile had just won a plebiscite extending his presidency to the year 1988, with a reappointment option what would conceivae year 1988, with a reappointment option what would conceivably keep him in power almost to theend of the century.

At bly keep him in power almost to theend of the century.

At the beginning of November, the Uruguayan document was finallthe beginning of November, the Uruguayan document was finally released to the newspapers. "An answer to the crisis," rey released to the newspapers. "An answer to the crisis," read the boldfaced type across the center pages.

In its 239 ad the boldfaced type across the center pages.

In its 239 articles and special "transitional" additions, the constitutarticles and special "transitional" additions, the constitution called for a presidential election -- a one-candidate elion called for a presidential election -- a one-candidate election, because "for this president to act efficiently, he mection, because "for this president to act efficiently, he must have the greatest popular respect possible."

It would hust have the greatest popular respect possible."

It would have given the armed forces the right of approval for the preave given the armed forces the right of approval for the presidential candidate and established a National Security Counsidential candidate and established a National Security Council, with permanent seats for the armed forces to share powecil, with permanent seats for the armed forces to share power with -- not advise -- the elected president.

"And 'natior with -- not advise -- the elected president.

"And 'national security' means everything," said Enrique Tarigo, editornal security' means everything," said Enrique Tarigo, editor of the newspaper Opinar, which was born out of opposition t of the newspaper Opinar, which was born out of opposition to the constitution. o

In the flowery Spanish of the constituo the constitution. o

In the flowery Spanish of the constitution, he defined it: "The state by which the national heritation, he defined it: "The state by which the national heritage in all its forms and the process of development toward nage in all its forms and the process of development toward national objectives shall be sheltered from internal or externtional objectives shall be sheltered from internal or external interference or aggression."

Tarigo shrugged, palms up. al interference or aggression."

Tarigo shrugged, palms up. "With this idea they had assured their future in the nation "With this idea they had assured their future in the national government. Asking us togo and vote for the military goval government. Asking us togo and vote for the military government to become the legitimate government was a little absernment to become the legitimate government was a little absurd, no?"

The national tally was 57.2 percent against the curd, no?"

The national tally was 57.2 percent against the constitution, 42.8 percent in favor out of 1.6 million Uruguaonstitution, 42.8 percent in favor out of 1.6 million Uruguayans who went to the polls. In Montevideo, the vote was 2-tyans who went to the polls. In Montevideo, the vote was 2-to-1 against the constitution and opposition leaders believe o-1 against the constitution and opposition leaders believe from voting records that young people voting for the first tfrom voting records that young people voting for the first time rejected the constitution by a margin of 4 to 1.

The rime rejected the constitution by a margin of 4 to 1.

The results were particularly surprising because ever since the cesults were particularly surprising because ever since the closure of Congress in 1973, when then-president Juan Maria Blosure of Congress in 1973, when then-president Juan Maria Bordaberry allowed the military to close Congress and stop thordaberry allowed the military to close Congress and stop the kidnappings and political murders by urban guerillas callee kidnappings and political murders by urban guerillas called Tupamaros, Urguay had been governed by a military junta ind Tupamaros, Urguay had been governed by a military junta in conjunction with a figurehead civilian president.

Parties conjunction with a figurehead civilian president.

Parties had not been allowed tomeet. The press had been rigidly co had not been allowed tomeet. The press had been rigidly controlled. Former politicians, party leaders and presidentiantrolled. Former politicians, party leaders and presidential candidates had been prohibited from working in politics. l candidates had been prohibited from working in politics. Urguay was a nation, according to offical doctrine, where "sUrguay was a nation, according to offical doctrine, where "social tranquility" had replaced the chaos brought on by openocial tranquility" had replaced the chaos brought on by open political activity.

But Uruguay -- a tiny contry with few political activity.

But Uruguay -- a tiny contry with fewer than 3 million people, half of them in Montevideo -- has er than 3 million people, half of them in Montevideo -- has a 100-year-old tradition of electoral politics. Uruguayans a 100-year-old tradition of electoral politics. Uruguayans still cherish their boast that a Montevideo cafe water knowsstill cherish their boast that a Montevideo cafe water knows more about history and politics than other countries' gover more about history and politics than other countries' governments ministers do. m

By the mid-1970s, the government had nments ministers do. m

By the mid-1970s, the government had been internationally condemned for its use of tortures -- sobeen internationally condemned for its use of tortures -- some reportedly refinedwith the help of North American adviserme reportedly refinedwith the help of North American advisers -- that ranged from carefully placed electric shock to thes -- that ranged from carefully placed electric shock to the "parrot's perch," apole on which the subject was hung by th "parrot's perch," apole on which the subject was hung by the wrists and ankles.

Uruguayan officials have repeatedly de wrists and ankles.

Uruguayan officials have repeatedly denied reports thatin the last few months, several of the 1,1enied reports thatin the last few months, several of the 1,197 political prisoners still at Uruguay's La Libertad prison97 political prisoners still at Uruguay's La Libertad prison have been tortured to death. Since last November, when pri have been tortured to death. Since last November, when prison officials declared just before the plebiscite that they son officials declared just before the plebiscite that they had discovered anescape plot at La Libertad, four prisoners had discovered anescape plot at La Libertad, four prisoners are believed to have died there of what were officially listare believed to have died there of what were officially listed as natural causes.

One of the dead, a former champion sed as natural causes.

One of the dead, a former champion swimmer, is supposed to have suffered a seizure and died whilwimmer, is supposed to have suffered a seizure and died while playing soccer in the prison exercise yard.

A recently re playing soccer in the prison exercise yard.

A recently released La Libertad prisoner, speaking three weeks ago at a eleased La Libertad prisoner, speaking three weeks ago at a press conference in Rio de Janeiro, said a former cellmate opress conference in Rio de Janeiro, said a former cellmate of his had beentortured before dying in what jail authoritiesf his had beentortured before dying in what jail authorities said was a suicide. Guillermo Fernandez, 32, who completed said was a suicide. Guillermo Fernandez, 32, who completed an eight-year sentence last July and spoke to reporters bef an eight-year sentence last July and spoke to reporters before flying toEurope, also accused prison authorities of drawore flying toEurope, also accused prison authorities of drawing up an "extermination list" of 64 prisoners who Fernandezing up an "extermination list" of 64 prisoners who Fernandez said had been taped complaining about prison conditions to said had been taped complaining about prison conditions to a visiting International Red Cross commission.

Opposition a visiting International Red Cross commission.

Opposition leaders areunwilling to talk about the torture rumors, altholeaders areunwilling to talk about the torture rumors, although they have heard them as well. North American diplomats ugh they have heard them as well. North American diplomats -- who saythat during the Carter administration they receive-- who saythat during the Carter administration they received what one diplomat called "a steady stream of family memberd what one diplomat called "a steady stream of family members" reporting torture or disappearances in Uruguay -- say thas" reporting torture or disappearances in Uruguay -- say that in recent months no one has brought such reports to them ot in recent months no one has brought such reports to them or to human rights officers at other embassies.

The Uruguayr to human rights officers at other embassies.

The Uruguayan military has never acknowledged, even under the intense ian military has never acknowledged, even under the intense international criticism it received the mid-1970s, that it manternational criticism it received the mid-1970s, that it made a practice of torturing prisoners.

But despite the ban de a practice of torturing prisoners.

But despite the ban on public politics and the fear generated by these reports oon public politics and the fear generated by these reports of torture, a sort of political life went on. By last Novembf torture, a sort of political life went on. By last November there were still caudillitos , little leaders: the doer there were still caudillitos , little leaders: the doctor orthe assembly worker who carried the parties' messagesctor orthe assembly worker who carried the parties' messages into factories and private homes. Within a day or two of t into factories and private homes. Within a day or two of the constitution's release, proscribed leaders of the Coloradhe constitution's release, proscribed leaders of the Colorados andthe Blancos, the nation's two major political parties,os andthe Blancos, the nation's two major political parties, had sent the caudillitos their veto message and were wa had sent the caudillitos their veto message and were waitingfor the word to spread.

Hand-to-hand, Uruguayans passitingfor the word to spread.

Hand-to-hand, Uruguayans passed around cassette tapes bearing the recorded voices of Jorged around cassette tapes bearing the recorded voices of Jorge Batlle, the proscribed Colorado ex-presidential candidate,e Batlle, the proscribed Colorado ex-presidential candidate, and Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, the Blanco ex-presidential ca and Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, the Blanco ex-presidential candidate who left the country out of fear for his life.

Thendidate who left the country out of fear for his life.

Therewas a story of one taxi driver who carried the Batlle cassrewas a story of one taxi driver who carried the Batlle cassette in his cab and when he sensed from conversation that heette in his cab and when he sensed from conversation that he was carrying a "no" passenger, he would turn on his cassett was carrying a "no" passenger, he would turn on his cassetteplayer and let the speech begin.

The government, in a deceplayer and let the speech begin.

The government, in a decision that many Uruguayans later could only attribute to galision that many Uruguayans later could only attribute to galloping overconfidence, was clearly prepared to allow Uruguayloping overconfidence, was clearly prepared to allow Uruguayans at least some argument. Two nationally televised plebisans at least some argument. Two nationally televised plebiscite debates were approved, and a group of Colorado youths rcite debates were approved, and a group of Colorado youths received permission for a public "no" rally in a Montevideo meceived permission for a public "no" rally in a Montevideo movie theater.

Many weeks later, one gray-haired Uruguayan ovie theater.

Many weeks later, one gray-haired Uruguayan played his cassette tape of the opening speech at that firstplayed his cassette tape of the opening speech at that first rally, his small smile widening as he listened again to the rally, his small smile widening as he listened again to the young recorded voice growing surer and fuller with each rou young recorded voice growing surer and fuller with each round of cheers.

"This is the first time anyone had spokenoutnd of cheers.

"This is the first time anyone had spokenout in eight years," the Uruguayan said.

The city was rife wi in eight years," the Uruguayan said.

The city was rife with plebiscite stories. There were rumors that the elderly wth plebiscite stories. There were rumors that the elderly would lose their pensions if the constitution failed, that thould lose their pensions if the constitution failed, that the voters would be spied on, that the envelopes were transpare voters would be spied on, that the envelopes were transparent and the voting tables were equipped with electric eyes. ent and the voting tables were equipped with electric eyes.

There was bitter complaining about the new government's ec

There was bitter complaining about the new government's economy, about workers' inability to keep pace with an inflationomy, about workers' inability to keep pace with an inflation rate that had run 83 percent in 1979. At the last of theon rate that had run 83 percent in 1979. At the last of the three "no" rallies, the day before the plebiscite, one Urug three "no" rallies, the day before the plebiscite, one Uruguayan saw something that would have seemed to him unthinkabluayan saw something that would have seemed to him unthinkable three weeks earlier: a middle-aged woman, on hearingone spe three weeks earlier: a middle-aged woman, on hearingone speaker mention President Aparicio Mendez, cried out fiercely,eaker mention President Aparicio Mendez, cried out fiercely, to loud applause, "That old man with no shame."

OnNov. 30, to loud applause, "That old man with no shame."

OnNov. 30, Uruguayans voted, and it is the sudden quiet that people no Uruguayans voted, and it is the sudden quiet that people now remember most.

"Without saying a word, they stood there w remember most.

"Without saying a word, they stood there for hours and hours," said a proscribed Colorado."Without spfor hours and hours," said a proscribed Colorado."Without speaking to each other, without telling anybody inthe line whaeaking to each other, without telling anybody inthe line what they were going to vote for. And they voted no. And aftet they were going to vote for. And they voted no. And after that, they went to their houses, not doing anything to pror that, they went to their houses, not doing anything to provoke a reaction of the government. And the dayafter the votvoke a reaction of the government. And the dayafter the vote, when you went to your work or you went to the streets, eve, when you went to your work or you went to the streets, everybody just smiled."

A week after it was over, the only vierybody just smiled."

A week after it was over, the only visible change in Uruguay was the weekly Opinar, which fills isible change in Uruguay was the weekly Opinar, which fills its columns with economic criticism, international news, and ts columns with economic criticism, international news, and talk of the plebiscite. The other newspapersare still hushetalk of the plebiscite. The other newspapersare still hushed. The politicians are still proscribed.

Quierolo still dd. The politicians are still proscribed.

Quierolo still declares that the nation will be ready for elections only "wheclares that the nation will be ready for elections only "when the conditions are created," that it will be up to the goen the conditions are created," that it will be up to the government to determine when that time has come, and that the vernment to determine when that time has come, and that the military intends to remain a permanent partof Uruguay's govemilitary intends to remain a permanent partof Uruguay's government "because we had very difficult years here, and we donrnment "because we had very difficult years here, and we don't want to repeat them."

"The repressionis exactly the same't want to repeat them."

"The repressionis exactly the same," said a proscribed Blanco. "It was not a triumph. It was," said a proscribed Blanco. "It was not a triumph. It was a protest. We didn't choose between two constitutions. It a protest. We didn't choose between two constitutions. It was just getting out the hatred -- no, no, no." was just getting out the hatred -- no, no, no."