The Reagan administration yesterday shot down talk of a tax-cut compromise, saying the president has not authorized anyone to discuss a deal with House Democrats and remains "fully committed" to the three-year, 30 percent cut in income tax rates that was central to his campaign but has met strong opposition in Congress.

As soon as Reagan's trio of top advisers entered the room he is using in the White House residence during his convalescence for their morning meeting, the president asked about the statement of House Budget Committee Chairman James R. Jones (D-Okla.) on television Sunday that administration officials had contacted him unofficially to discuss a compromise tax cut fewer than three years.

"I am convinced that American people strongly support my program and do not want it watered down," Reagan told his senior aides, according to deputy press secretary Larry Speaks.

Jones professed confusion yesterday. He said that three officials of sub-Cabinet rank telephoned him Friday to arrange a meeting that day at which they indicated that they realized they would have to compromise.

Jones refused to say what department the officials work for, but said, "I considered this as an overture. Maybe I'm naive, but I took it at face value."

"I don't understand why they're denying it," Jones added. "I assumed they were laying the groundwork [for a compromise.]" He said: "I took the meeting as showing the administration wanted to work with Congress."

Reagan counselor Edwin Meese Iii, Office of Management and Budget Director David A. Stockman and Treasury Secretary Donald Regan joined the president in denying the administration is considering a compromise. The Democrats want only a one-year tax cut for now, and differ with Reagan on how it should be shaped.

Even after the president's rejection of compromise yesterday some administration officials were using the term "multi-year" instead of three-year in reference to their tax cut goals. They seemed to be pointing toward a compromise on a two-year plan.

Reagan's refusal to consider compromise began his first working day since returning to the White House Saturday after 12 days in George Washington University Hospital recovering from the would-be assassin's bullet that pierced his left lung.

In addition to meeting Meese, chief of staff James A. Baker III and deputy chief of staff Michael K. Deaver for about half an hour, the president spent about half an hour with each of two Cabinet members just back from trips abroad.

Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig Jr. reported to Reagan on his Mideast tour and Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger discussed his trip to NATO nations. Vice President Bush attended both meetings.

Dr. Daniel Ruge, the White House physician, said the president is "doing extremely well," but he is working only a few hours each day and will not leave the residential quarters for the Oval Office until next week at the earliest. t

"He needs rest," Bush said. "I think Mrs. Reagan is determined to see that he gets it -- and well she should."

The president is taking pencillin orally to guard against infection.

Amid the growing battle over Reagan's tax proposals, the president made public his 1980 tax return yesterday. It showed that Reagan and his wife, Nancy, paid $67,465 in federal taxes on an income $227,968. His income was less than half what he earned in 1979 because he was campaigning for the presidency and made fewer paid speeches.

Most of his 1980 income, $164,337, came from interest. CAPTION:

Picture, President Reagan at White House meeting, with James A. Baker III, Edwin Meese III, Vice President Bush and Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger. White House photo