After a week of restrained comment on the Polish crisis from the Kremlin's senior leaders -- a move aimed as much at the West as at Poland itself -- the Soviet Union has resumed its propoganda campaign against the Solidarity trade unions.

The official Communist Part paper Pravada today quoted some Polish factory workers as making sharply critical remakrs of the independent workers' movements, and urging the Polish party to take command of the country's affairs. Meanwhile, the current issue of the weekly Literaturnaya Gazeta accuses Solidarity of ties to neo-Nazis in Britian and West Germany, a theme that had been muted for some weeks.

Foreign analysts see the latest attacks as the most obvious signs of Soviet worries about the Polish reform processes, which envision secret ballots and unlimited candidate slates to choolse delegates to the special party congress scheduled in midsummer. The analysts believe that Soviet anxiety and pressure are certain to reach another peak as the election nears, and, independent of any new confrontation between the government and Solidarity, that they could raise again a national strike threat.

Pravda charged that workers at the Warel electronics factory had complained that Solidarity is trying to bring "great psychological pressure" on workers to declare strike alerts despite the fact that shops are short of food and other goods as a result of the labor turmoil. The paper accused "some people" in the Polish Communist Party of trying to "advance views foreign to Marxism-Leninism, disguising their deviation with . . . false party-like phrases about ideological pluralism and partnership of diverse political forces."

This kind of ideological falsity, the paper declared, aids antisocialist forces opposed to the party and its leading role. "The party must resist any actions which weaken its ranks and decisively defend socialism," it said in the latest show of concern about the firmness of party leader Stanislaw Kania and his premier, Wojciech Jaruzelski.

Although the official Tass news agency recently quoted Kania for the first time in a while, Moscow shows no sign of new support for the former security chief. And Jaruzelski's successful move to get the Polish legislature to call strikes illegal for the next two months has received scant attention here.

At the same time, well-informed Soviet party sources say there has been no move within the rank and file or even from within its concentration of white-collar specialists here in the capital to seek confidential briefings or special instructions to the cadres on how to handle the Polish crisis in internal discussions.

The relative silence reported from within the party is in distinct contrast to the situation 12 1/2 years ago before the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.