A special arab League committee suspended its efforts to find a solution to Lebanon's political turmoil today after failing to obtain any commitment from the Christian Phalangist Party to sever its links with Israel.

Syrian Foreign Minister Abdul Halim Khaddam told reporters after the talks were haltered in the Lebanese resort town of Beiteddine that the committee had adjourned until July 25 because the issue of Christian ties to Israel had not been settled.

The committee, made up of the foreign ministers of Syria, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Arab League Secretary General Chedli Klibi of Tunisia, was reportedly insisting that the Phalangists renounce their links to Israel as a condition for an overall settlement to the political strife and sectarian violence plaguing Lebanon for six years.

The Phalangist leaders have refused to make such a pledge before the Christian community is given explicit guarantees for its safety and political rights as part of a comprehensive settlement.

Despite three meetings of the Arab League committee since the lastest trouble began in April with fighting between Christian militia and Syrian forces, there is still no indication that the various Lebanese factions have come closer to an accord.

But the committee has brought about a cease-fire in Beirut and the lifting of the three-month-long Syrian siege of Zahle, the predominantly Greek Catholic city in the Bekas Valley of central Lebanon.

"It is not a dead-end road," Lebanese Foreign Minister Fuad Butros said when asked about the difficulties the committee had encountered at Beiteddine.

In effect, however, Lebanon is back where it was before the Syrian siege began April 1, with an uneasy cease-fire prevailing throughout most of the country and little resolved.

The only major change has been the introduction in April of Syrian ground-to-air missiles into Lebanon for the first time following the shooting down near Zahle of two syrian helicopters by Israeli warplanes.

Isaeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin repeatedly has said Israel will destroy the missiles if Syria does not remove them.

His threats caused fears of an Israeli-Syrian military confrontation that prompted the Reagan administration to send special envoy Philip C. Habib to the region in May and again in June to ease the crisis.

While Habib failed to arrange any compromise on the missiles, his presence in the Middle East for five weeks helped keep the situation from deteriorating. This in turn gave the Arab League committee time to achieve the cease-fire and relaxation of tensions.

The future of the Syrian missiles -- still in the Bekaa Valley but reportedly in new sites -- remains unclear. Much is likely to depend on what the new Israeli government does once it is formed and installed.