Alpha Phi Alpha, a men's social club for many black leaders and much of the nation's black professional class, presented $600,000 yesterday to heads of the Urban League, NAACP and United Negro College Fund.

At the same time, Alpha president Ozell Sutton announced a new social action role for the 45,000-member fraternity which has tended to concentrate on organizing debutante cotillions and Christman balls. Sutton said the major efforts this year will be to press for extension of the Voting Rights Act and designation of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday as a national holiday.

The contributions to the three activist organizations come as declining donations and Reagan administration cutbacks have pinched civil rights groups. dThe Urban League, which has especially relied on federal funding, stands to lost up to 80 percent of the $110 million its headquarters and affiliates now receive.

Sutton, Atlanta regional director for the Justice Department's community relations service, said of Alpha's contributions: "We're simply taking the attitude that blacks themselves are going to have to come up with sustaining support of institutions within their community that are essential to their well-being."

The Alphas are celebrating their 75th anniversary this year. They and similar fraternities and sorrities have not only been influential on college campuses, but also numerous alumni chapters have often been the cornerstone of middle-class black social life, especially in southern cities.

Alpha, oldest of the black fraternities, has 607 chapters, most in the United States but a few in Africia and around military posts in Europe and Asia. King had been a member, and its rolls currently include Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Samuel R. Pierce Jr., former U.N. ambassador Andrew Young and Mayors Marion Barry of Washington, Maynard Jackson of Atlanta and Ernest (Dutch) Morial of New Orleans.