The Kremlin launched a bitter attack on Poland's independent trade union, Solidarity, today and twinned it with unusual media announcements of Soviet war games that start Friday along Poland's border.

In the most detailed ideological attack on the Polish union, the Soviet trade union daily, Trud, assailed Solidarity as an antisocialist opposition that wants to take political power and "restore capitalism."

Other newspapers, including the government daily Izvestia, devoted substantial space to the forthcoming military maneuvers in Byelorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the Baltic Sea.

But diplomatic observers said the two-pronged warnings suggested only fresh Soviet pressure on Solidarity on the eve of its first congress, Saturday in Gdansk, not an impending military move.

While the article in Trud represents a detailed restatement of Moscow's abhorrence of the very notion of independent unions in a socialist state, it was, nevertheless, placed in a relatively minor daily.

But the supersecretive Soviet military establishment has taken an unprecedented step in publicizing what are normally regarded here as state secrets.

The official news agency Tass disclosed that reservists had been called up. The account sought to suggest that the scope of this move was considerable by saying that many factories had pledged to meet their production norms despite personnel being called to service.

Other measures normally kept secret have been announced this time, such as the fact that civilian vehicles have been comandeered in the area of the exercises.

Western diplomats said that the maneuvers seemed mainly intended to put psychological pressure on the Poles. But their nearness to Poland seems designed to demonstrate the Poles' ultimate vulnerability.

Another indication of the psychological intent of the games is that they are being directed by Defense Minister Dimitri Ustinov, who holds the rank of marshal but has no military background.

The Trud article coincided with a condemnation by Tass of the appearance of Solidarity leader Lech Walesa and several associates on Polish television. Tass charged that Solidarity leaders had openly stated their intentions to take over the mass media and suggested disapproval of the Polish government's decision to give union leaders any broadcast time at all.

Without the ambiguities that usually accompany Soviet criticism, Trud said Solidarity's draft program was in "contradiction to the Marxist-Leninist conception of trade unions."

In criticizing that document's assertion that Solidarity would remain politically neutral, Trud quoted Lenin as saying that claims of neutrality are either "a cover for counterrevolutionaries or an expression of political stupidity."

Although The paper attacked Solidarity in gen eral, it reserved the sharpest attacks for the rad- ical wing of the nion leadership 1/2.

Singling out as "malicious Anticommunists" Jan Rulewski, Andrzej Gwiazda, Bogdan Lis and Zbig- niew Bujak.

These people, Trud said, are openly calling for a "burning of party offices". It said they are work ing with impwerialist circles and internal reaction" to push Poland from her Socialist path.