The executive council of the AFL-CIO voted unanimously today to increase affiliate dues by $14.6 million a year by 1983.

The increase, if approved by the full federation convention that starts Monday, would raise the assessment per union member from 19 cents a month to 24 cents next Jan. 1 and to 27 cents the following year.

The council also approved a resolution condemning President Reagan's handling of the air traffic controller's strike. The executive board of the Airline Pilots Association, which initially opposed the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization walkout, joined in the request that the 11,438 controllers dismissed because of the strike be rehired.

ALPA officials said they had changed their position because thousands of pilots and other airline employes had lost their jobs since the strike has forced the nation's air traffic system to operate at only 80 percent of capacity.

The AFL-CIO leaders also declared a nationwide boycott of Procter & Gamble soap products, charging the corporation with "obstructive bargaining" tactics, United Press International reported.

If organized labor heeds the call, the action could ignite the largest boycott by labor since the successful action against the J.P. Stevens textile company. The boycott includes Tide, Cheer, Oxydol and Bold powder detergents; Camay, Zest, and Ivory bar soaps, and Ivory, Joy and Dawn liquid detergents.

Union officials said the increased dues were needed to cover increased operating costs, up $2.71 million in 1981 to $30.08 million. But the AFL-CIO also is embarking on a political campaign, primarily geared to the 1982 congressional campaign and to electing pro-labor candidates, most of whom are Democrats.

The increase could open the federation to stepped-up criticism from groups such as the National Right to Work Committee which have long argued that it is unfair, and perhaps illegal, to use union dues to support a particular candidate or party.

But the AFL-CIO leadership disagrees. It says that the grass-roots efforts, to be conducted by the federation's Committee on Political Education, would involve education, not any direct contributions to a political party or candidate. Individual members are free to make their own contributions, officials said.

A part of the increase also would go toward a George Meany Memorial Archives and Library in Washington in honor of the AFL-CIO's first president, who died Jan. 10, 1980.

The featured speakers here this week are all Democrats, including former vice president Walter F. Mondale, New York Gov. Hugh Carey, Sens. Daniel Patrick Moynihan of New York, and Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, House Speaker Thomas P. (Tip) O'Neill Jr. (Mass.) and New York City Mayor Edward Koch.

No one from the Reagan administration has been invited to the convention. However, the administration will have a presence -- Robert Bonitati, White House labor liaison, Thaddeus Garrett, Vice President Bush's domestic policy affairs adviser, and Ed Rollins, deputy assistant to the president for political affairs.