The government-run Polish media today carried tape-recorded remarks from a closed-door meeting last week in Radom of leading independent union representatives who said that confrontation with the authorities is certain and who can be heard talking of setting up a temporary national government.

The passages, quoting Solidarity leader Lech Walesa and others, were said by the official Polish newspapers and Warsaw radio to unmask Solidarity's real goal as being a takeover of power in Poland.

Union officials, clearly upset by the open airing of what they thought were private exchanges among 38 regional Solidarity leaders, did not deny the quoted remarks but said the statements had been taken out of context from what was a lengthy, intense session.

Coming at a time of renewed tension between the union and the authorities, the government action seemed shrewdly designed to depict Solidarity as the aggressor and divert attention from last week's police raid on the Warsaw firefighters academy and from the Emergency Powers Act being sought by the government.

With key legislative decisions approaching on a number of crucial reforms, Solidarity and Communist Party officials have started competing for the upper hand again following a period of relative calm. With the tapes, the authorities are evidently aiming to pin the union on the wrong side of a line that Solidarity has carefully tried not to step over -- the one between economic and political power.

The Soviet media have given a similar analysis of the situation here, with the official news agency Tass saying today that the Radom meeting "set Solidarity's sights on an open struggle for power and on breaking the state and social system in Poland."

In a telephone interview, Marek Brunne, Solidarity's spokesman, called the excerpts from the tapes publicized by the government "selective sections to prove a thesis."

Remarking on the exploratory, sometimes extreme range of views expressed at such conferences, Brunne added, "You must remember that not all ideas presented in Radom by Solidarity's leaders are realistic."

While the circumstances under which the tape was obtained were not explained, the portions played on Warsaw radio sounded scratchy but distinct enough that the recording could have been made by one of the union's own representatives sitting in the meeting hall. Union officials frequently tape the meetings for the benefit of union members in their regions. Most previous meetings, in fact, have been open to the press.

"The fact that a leak took place does not speak well of those who took part in the meeting," said Brunne, adding that it was possible the recording had been sold by a union insider.

In a releated development, Solidarity's leader in the port city of Szczecin, Marian Jurczyk, was formally charged today with slandering the state by calling Polish parliamentary deputies traitors and demanding use of the gallows.

Taking obvious relish in printing the taped excerpts from the Radom meeting, Zolnierz Wolnoszi, the Polish Army newspaper, declared: "And so the masks are down and the ends so far pursued through camouflage and illusory and deceptive slogans have been stated. All the time these ends were to take over power and to overthrow the socialist system in Poland."

Trybuna Ludu, the leading Communist Party paper, also published portions of the tape and concluded: "Does one have to disclose the real aims of some of Solidarity's leading activists any clearer than they did themselves? ... Their aims have nothing to do with any constructive activity that might arrest the present crisis and make it possible to get out of the economic abyss. They can be briefly summed up as follows: We must take over power at any price."

The Radom meeting resulted in a strongly worded communique threatening a general strike should the government carry out plans to legislate and implement emergency powers. The Solidarity leadership also accused the government of going back on plans for major economic reform, and pressed standing demands for greater media access and earlier regional council elections.

Sternly responding, the government charged Solidarity in a statement published today with breaking the August 1980 agreements between workers and the authorities and assuming the position of "a political opposition force embarking on open struggle against socialist authority and struggle for power." Solidarity's latest stance, the statement said, created "a new very serious situation fraught with political consequences."

This drew another statement today from Solidarity denying it is trying to aggravate Poland's social and political climate. The union said it is genuinely interested in achieving national accord, but declared that this required solutions to long-standing complaints.

The determination of the government to go ahead with the Emergency Powers Act, the specifics of which have still not been spelled out, "makes one doubt in the honesty of negotiations which are simultaneously taking place," the union statement said. "The same kind of doubts are aroused by propaganda activities designed to create a psychosis of a growing wave of strikes."

Thrown back currently into a new and potentially dangerous test of wills, Polish authorities and Solidarity are trying to pin responsibility on one another for the outbreak of fresh tensions. Joint union-government talks on major policy matters which still divide the two sides have not been held since Nov. 17.

Both sides still have room for maneuver before a final showdown. No specific date has yet been set, for example, for the next session of parliament at which the emergency powers legislation and other important bills are likely to be considered.

But the government exposure of the Radom tapes is sure to worsen political tensions here. In an ominous move, Solidarity announced today that a meeting of its national commission would be held Dec. 11-12 in the Gdansk shipyard, the spot where Poland's upheaval began 15 months ago, and where the union leadership goes when it gets fighting mad.

One sign of apparent relief in an otherwise stormy scene was an appeal today to stop widespread student strikes by the national commission that has been coordinating the student protests. The sit-ins at more than 80 universities throughout Poland have been going on for more than a month and involve more than 100,000 students in a sympathy action with students at Radom engineering school who are demanding the removal of the rector. The protesters have also insisted on quick passage of an educational reform bill now before the Polish parliament.

Following an all-night meeting here, the national strike group called on students to resume classes Tuesday, but said a strike alert should remain in effect until solution of the Radom conflict. Schools in Warsaw and Bialystok were to continue on strike.

The Radom tapes portray the intense suspicion toward state and Communist Party authorities still borne by some of Solidarity's top leaders. The excerpts also show the militant demands with which the union moderates are wrestling to keep Poland from veering into violent confrontation with the Warsaw government and the Soviet Union.

"The confrontation is unavoidable," Walesa is quoted as saying in the government-publicized version of the tapes, "and confrontation will take place. One has to make people realize that we can't avoid confrontation."

At another point, Walesa said, "We'll win, only we don't want to pay the maximum price. The meaning is to pay as little as possible. That is why one should pick the place."

"I haven't trusted anybody who has power in this system since 1970," Walesa went on to say, "but I do not repeat it generally, except here in this company I can say it . . . . They really want to outmaneuver us. But we do realize that we are pulling this system apart."

Once during the often heated session, Seweryn Jaworski, the deputy chief of Solidarity's Warsaw chapter, warned Walesa against compromise, according to the published excerpts.

"If you go back even one step," he declared, "then I will cut your head off myself, and if I am not doing it, someone else will do it." Later, Jan Rulewski, the union chief in Bydgoszcz, is quoted as advocating a "transitory government" to stabilize Poland until free elections for political councils could be held. Rulewski said this temporary government could take the form of a "social economic council." He was supported in this, according to the tape, by the Warsaw regional president Zbigniew Bujak.