The parents of Ziad Abu Eain, a Palestinian who was extradited from the United States to Israel to face charges of exploding a terrorist bomb in 1979, obtained a temporary order from Israel's Supreme Court today preventing the West Bank military government from blowing up their house as a punitive measure.

Abu Eain, 21, who was turned over to Israeli authorities yesterday, is the first Palestinian to be extradited under an Israeli-U.S. treaty signed in 1963. He returned here from Chicago on charges that he had planted a bomb in a trash can during a youth rally in Tiberias on May 14, 1979, killing two teen-age boys and wounding 36 other persons.

He was arrested in August 1979 at his sister's home in Chicago, and since then he had fought his extradition on the basis of a "political offense" exception to the treaty, claiming that a confession by an alleged accomplice implicating him had been written in Hebrew. The alleged accomplice, Jamal Yassin, does not speak or read Hebrew.

Israeli authorities said Abu Eain was charged with murder and that the case did not involve a political offense.

The Supreme Court restrained the military government from blowing up Abu Eain's family home in Ramallah and from sealing it in shut. The family owns a small aluminum fabricating business and a retail shop in Ramallah.

Since Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1967, the Army has blown up nearly 1,500 Arab houses, most of them owned by families of persons arrested as suspected terrorists. Israeli officials say the policy is intended to be a deterrent.

The court today prohibited such action against the Abu Eain family pending completion of legal proceedings against the suspect.