A defiant appeal by the national trade union Solidarity for a general strike met with partial support yesterday with a pattern emerging of large steel mills and mines closing down, but transport services and shops remaining open, as this stunned nation went through its first day of work under martial law.
Workers reported that sit-ins were under way in at least four large factories in the Warsaw area. At the Jastrzembie coal mine, in southern Poland, a strike committee had been set up. Jastrzembie was the scene of the first miners' strike in the summer of 1980. Four other mines in the region were also reported strike-bound.
Also in southern Poland, the Katowice steel factory, Poland's largest, was said to have been struck and workers there faced an ultimatum to vacate the premises. About 1,000 Polish Army troops were spotted in the woods about three miles from the plant. Solidarity sources in Warsaw and in Silesia also reported protests in the Baltic Port of Gdansk.
[Warsaw television, monitored in the West, reported that security forces broke up one strike attempt led by "an irresponsible group of Solidarity extremists" at Katowice. It said about a dozen people had been arrested, and the authorities had been supported by "the dignified civic attitude of the work force."]
The Polish press agency said only that discussions in many factories well going onand denied there had been any interruptions of work.
Because communication lines throughout the country have been cut and travel severely restricted by a ban on gasoline sales and the requirement that Poles be back in the towns in which they are registered by last night, getting an accurate picture of the public's true response to the government's emergency measures remained difficult.
Official reports delivered on television by broadcasters in military uniform, continued to urge citizens to assume a normal life. TV broadcasts showed Poles shopping and moving about in usual fashion.
Throughout the day, Polish radio and television quoted from Sunday's sermon by Poland's Roman Catholic primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp who pleaded to the nation to remain calm and avoid bloodshed.
In a report from its Warsaw correspondent, the official radio of neighboring Czechoslovakia said "calm reigns for the most part" in the streets of Polish cities. "Only in some areas is Solidarity trying to create unrest," Czechoslovak radio said. "Supplies and transport are approximately the same as in preceding days." The Czechoslovak report said Army and police patrols had been scaled down to protect only important roadways and official buildings.
In Warsaw, on the surface at least, people appeared to be calm. Their first day back at work following the weekend's traumatic events provided their first opportunity to trade information and thoughts in a country that is now severely hampered by the absence of communications.
Dissuading many Poles from protesting the drastic limitations of civil rights imposed on them is the threat of three years or more in prison for violating the new ban on strikes or the organization of nonreligious public gatherings.
But some of the largest Solidarity cells in the country appeared to be making a determined bid to reorganize and renew their resistance to the authorities. Most of the national union's leadership, rounded up early Sunday morning in Gdansk, remained in detention. Solidarity appeared to be at a loss for not having prepared contingency plans for such events.
The Polish military took power on Sunday in a move to put an end to months of turmoil and crisis and avert what they said would be civil war. The country is now ruled by a military council, headed by Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, who had been prime minister and Communist Party leader before the military takeover.
There was no word from or about Solidarity chief Lech Walesa, who was brought to Warsaw Sunday for meetings with government officials.
Walesa was officially said to be in a government guest house.
The silence from the union chief, who had been pressing a moderate course to avoid the crackdown that ultimately came, implied that he is refusing to agree to do whatever the government is asking of him.
Presumably the authorities are discussing a formula with him that could persuade him to issue a public appeal for calm as Archbishop Glemp did.
But a Solidarity source who returned to Warsaw today from meetings with shipyard workers in Walesa's home town of Gdansk said union activists there are worried that Walesa may be facing psychological pressure from the authorities in the form of being fed false reports about the situation in the country, or in some other form, in the effort to influence him.
This source said that anything Walesa might say that would appear supportive of the government's measures will not be believed by other Solidarity leaders unless they can witness Walesa making the statement.
Meanwhile, Solidarity's deputy chairman, Miroslaw Erupinski, and four other union leaders who escaped detention issued a declaration for a nationwide occupation strike. The appeal was carried by a courier from Gdansk to Warsaw. The statement offered to cancel the strike call and to resume negotiations with the authorities if all those who have been detained are released and Poland's state of emergency canceled.
Reports from dissident and church sources yesterday indicated that the sweep by police reached well beyond Solidarity's national leadership that was rounded up in Gdansk early Sunday. These sources reported that more than 60 of the country's most prominent intellectuals, artists, actors and publicists were caught in the dragnet. Among them, the writer Andrezj Kitjowski, film critic Michal Komar, actress Halina Mikolajska, historian Bronislaw Geremek, leading Catholic intellectual and editor of Solidarity's weekly Tadeusz Mazoviecki, and a well-known dissident theoretician Adam Michnik. In addition, hundreds of Solidarity activists at local levels throughout Poland are believed to have been detained. Only a few have been released.
A bulletin declaring a strike at the large foundry works plant Auta Warszawa, on the outskirts of Warsaw, was posted on the factory's gates yesterday. Workers standing at the gate told reporters that the night shift had started a sit-in that was joined by the morning crew. Other sit-ins in the Warsaw area were reporteds at the Fiat car factory, the Swierczewski tool factory and the Ursus tractor factory.
Further, a well-placed source in the Warsaw city administrationsaid that power consumption in the city was down to a Sunday level -- a strong indication of low industrial activity.
Apparently there was no massive movement of troops against these industrial plants. Authorities seemed to be waiting at least for the first expression of worker rage to pass before taking action.
The army's presence was nonetheless strongly evident in the nation's capital as soldiers diverted traffic off main streets that passed by government buildings, and clusters of troops walked along city sidewalks. A Polish armored personnel carrier was stationed at the front of the Soviet Embassy, and Polish Army soldiers ringed its perimiter.
An armored column that was spotted Sunday on the road between Warsaw and Gdansk was identified by Western sources as Poland's first armored division, the country's crack troops.
Under the command of the 21-man military council, Poland appeared to be in the tight grip of the military.
Sessions of the parliament scheduled for this week were canceled, banks remained closed, schools and universities were shut and students sent on an indefinite vacation. Lists published today showed that major industries were also now subject to military administration.
With freedom of speech suspended, Poles found few sources of information to tell them what had happened to their country. Only two major newspapers are being published -- the Communist Party daily, Trybuna Ludu, and the army paper, Zolnierz Wolnosci Soldier of Fortune .
A dozen or so regional papers are also being published under heavy censorship.
The party and army papers said that martial law had been enforced in Poland as the last chance of averting a national tragedy and saving the state, the nation and socialist renewal. The papers urged social order, discipline, work, peace and national reconciliation.
News of what is being said in the West about the Polish situation is being shaped here to suggest that Western governments and press are treating the events here as an internal matter to be handled by the Poles.