Polish officials attempted to portray a country at peace on Christmas Day, but suggestions of continuing unrest were apparent in official Warsaw Radio broadcasts monitored in the West yesterday.
Punctuating Christmas music and broadcasts of a holiday message by the Roman Catholic primate of Poland, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, were reports of continuing unrest in the mining region of Silesia. The huge Katowice steelworks, reported earlier this week to have been wrested from occupying workers, was said to be back in operation but only under the watchful eye of soldiers inside the plant.
The Christmas message of Pope John Paul II, which received major play in heavily Catholic Poland last year, was given only a bare mention on Polish radio. It did not include specific references to the situation in his native land.
While Polish commentary was directed to internal affairs, the Soviet Communist Party's official newspaper, Pravda, unleashed a major attack on the United States, claiming in a 3,500-word article that the 16-month period of turmoil in Poland was the result of a CIA operation that had been planned after similar efforts failed in Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.
The Pravda article, as carried by the Tass news agency, wove an intricate web of alleged contacts between members of KOR (the Committee for Social Self-Defense) and U.S. intelligence operations.
Members of KOR, such as Jacek Kuron and Adam Michnik, emerged as the more militant members of the independent Solidarity trade union movement and have been singled out by Polish authorities since the imposition of martial law almost two weeks ago.
Pravda's Moscow commentary made no mention yesterday of Solidarity leader Lech Walesa. In his address carried by Warsaw Radio on Christmas Eve, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski said that Poland's socioeconomic system has "room for . . . really independent trade unions--independent of the state employer but also independent of the manipulations and terror of irresponsible politicos." This led to speculation that attempts might be made to win Walesa over to some type of national reconciliation movement.
Warsaw Radio yesterday said that the first day of the Christmas weekend in Katowice "has been marked by family gatherings. There is not much traffic in the streets of Katowice, Gliwice and Zabrze and in other large urban centers."
The correspondent said that the steelworks in Katowice fired up Christmas Eve "after a break" and that "this afternoon the first steel was melted." Lt. Gen. Roman Paszkowski was reported to have "visited soldiers on duty in the Katowice steelworks combine on behalf of the Military Council of National Salvation and Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski."
The situation in the Silesian mines was more tense, however, with the Piast colliery said to be a matter of concern. The radio said four miners came to the surface yesterday but that 1,276 persons remained below where a "protest action of part of the work force is under way."
At the Ziemowit mine, where a Warsaw Radio correspondent said Thursday that a protest action was ending with "all of the miners . . . at their homes and at the Christmas table," there was another broadcast yesterday during which women said to be the wives of miners still holding out in the pits could be heard pleading with their husbands.
It was unclear from the broadcast whether some miners remained in the pits Thursday or others had managed to take the places of those who emerged. There was no indication of how many remained underground at Ziemowit.
In the broadcasts yesterday, it was clear the Polish authorities were attempting to play on the holiday spirit to portray a picture of a country returning to normal. Martial-law curfews had been relaxed to allow Poles to attend midnight mass, and Christmas masses were broadcast on the radio throughout the day.
The pope was quoted only briefly, although his Christmas message had several passages applicable to his native land.
The one statement by the pope that was carried over Warsaw Radio said, "I wish these greetings to reach in particular those who are suffering, who are separated from their loved ones and who perhaps feel dispirited or distressed."
Passages from his speech, which referred to governments that deprive their people of basic human rights and religious rights and also condemned systems that violate human rights, were not mentioned by Warsaw Radio.
The pope is likely to continue to play a role in the unfolding Polish drama, however. This was indicated by Archbishop Glemp, who referred in his Christmas pastoral letter, which was carried over the official radio, to the pope's planned visit to Poland next summer.
Pravda commentary yesterday expanded on a recent Soviet theme: that the trouble in Poland is more a question of Western manipulation than deep-rooted Polish dissatisfaction with communism.
"Poland was chosen as a target of subversive activities by the United States and the other imperialist powers . . . way back in the '50s when the CIA unleashed a 'full-scale secret war' against Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia . . . whose aim was to instigate actions against the people's power in those countries," Pravda said.
"Having suffered a failure in their attempts to stage counter-revolutionary coups in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968, the subversive services of imperialism, in the first place of American imperialism, started scrupulous preparations for new actions to 'corrupt socialism from the inside.' People's Poland was listed as item one in their plans."
Operating through "dummy screens" in Switzerland, Paris and Australia, the article charges, the CIA funneled money and equipment, such as duplicating machines and radio transmitters, to KOR.
The article charged that the specific operation to foment trouble in Poland was decided upon by the Carter administration and kept in place by President Reagan.
By portraying unrest in Poland as a function of U.S. attempts to "roll back" communism in Eastern Europe, the Soviets are in a position to play on existing sentiments in Western Europe against a renewal of widespread East-West tensions.
Such a theme also would be directed at an internal audience, attempting to reinforce a claim that the upheaval in Poland was not the result of widespread discontent but was a matter of outside manipulation through small numbers of instigators, and that the vast majority of Poles were not basically opposed to the existing form of government.
The Pravda article charged several times that U.S.-run Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which are based in Munich and broadcast to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively, were part of the CIA destabilization plans, as were the operations of the U.S. official radio, the Voice of America.