A senior Soviet official said tonight that the situation in Poland would have returned to normal "in a matter of weeks" had it not been for what he called "the most crude" American interference in internal Polish affairs.

Valentin Falin, deputy spokesman for the Soviet Communist Party Central Committee, accused the U.S. consulates in Krakow and Poznan of broadcasting "messages" to Poles, calling on them to resist martial-law authorities.

He said other forms of interference involved "instructions, money and equipment" allegedly smuggled into Poland to promote "antigovernment activity." He said the current wave of anti-Soviet propaganda included "lies, deliberate distortion of facts and invented figures" designed to destabilize Poland.

The State Department said it had no comment on Falin's charges, but a spokesman said the U.S. consulates in Krakow and Poznan have no radio transmitters.

Speaking on Soviet television, Falin denied reports of widespread deaths and injuries in Poland and said fewer than 10 Poles have been killed since the premier and party leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, imposed martial law on Dec. 13.

Falin contrasted this to demonstrations in West Germany in recent years against construction of nuclear power plants. He said hundreds of persons had been injured at that time, during which he was the Soviet ambassador in Bonn. He also referred to riots in Miami last summer that had produced heavy casualties and loss of life:

"I would like to ask these squealers in the West, how many casualties are there among demonstrators when there is a clash with the police for any reason in your countries?"

Falin also rejected charges of Soviet interference in Polish affairs. "If the Soviet Union somehow interferes in Polish affairs," he said, "it does so only by supplying Poland with raw materials, oil and food products. Poland's economy would have been brought to a complete standstill within two days without Soviet oil and natural gas and the whole country would freeze."

The tone of Falin's remarks was moderate and included no vitriolic attack on the United States.

Falin was the first Soviet official to discuss publicly the military takeover in Poland. His argument followed the thrust of Soviet statements, which have sought to play upon strong economic and political interests in several Western European countries in continuing detente with Eastern Europe.

He expressed the hope that Poland would enter a period of "constructive developments" in 1982. "It is necessary that Polish interests be respected," he said, and that the West "adhere to the principle of noninterference" so Poland does not become "a pretext for building up international tensions."

The official news agency Tass, meanwhile, again accused the Reagan administration of putting "gross pressure" on Western European countries to join U.S. economic sanctions against Poland.

It said Lawrence Eagleburger, assistant secretary of state for European affairs, who recently visited European capitals, was "grossly distorting the true state of affairs in Poland" in an effort to bring Western Europe behind U.S. pressures on Polish authorities.

"Instigatory purposes" of Eagleburger's tour "are absolutely incompatible" with American statements that Poles should resolve the crisis "without any outside interference," and they "expose the falseness and hypocrisy of such statements," Tass said.

Tass also charged that some extremist Solidarity leaders who were abroad when martial law was imposed are now "actively" participating in "provocative broadcasts" by Radio Free Europe, the U.S.-funded station based in Munich.